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The science of studying diamond inclusions for understanding Earth history has developed significantly over the past decades, with new instrumentation and techniques applied to diamond sample archives revealing the stories contained within diamond inclusions. This chapter reviews what diamonds can tell us about the deep carbon cycle over the course of Earth’s history. It reviews how the geochemistry of diamonds and their inclusions inform us about the deep carbon cycle, the origin of the diamonds in Earth’s mantle, and the evolution of diamonds through time.
We investigated a large multistate outbreak that occurred in the United States in 2015–2016. Epidemiologic, laboratory, and traceback studies were conducted to determine the source of the infections. We identified 907 case-patients from 40 states with illness onset dates ranging from July 3, 2015 to March 2, 2016. Sixty-three percent of case-patients reported consuming cucumbers in the week before illness onset. Ten illness sub-clusters linked to events or purchase locations were identified. All sub-clusters investigated received cucumbers from a single distributor which were sourced from a single grower in Mexico. Seventy-five cucumber samples were collected, 19 of which yielded the outbreak strain. Whole genome sequencing performed on 154 clinical isolates and 19 cucumber samples indicated that the sequenced isolates were closely related genetically to one another. This was the largest US foodborne disease outbreak in the last ten years and the third largest in the past 20 years. This was at least the fifth multistate outbreak caused by contaminated cucumbers since 2010. The outbreak is noteworthy because a recall was issued only 17 days after the outbreak was identified, which allowed for the removal of the contaminated cucumbers still available in commerce, unlike previous cucumber associated outbreaks. The rapid identification and response of multiple public health agencies resulted in preventing this from becoming an even larger outbreak.
Objectives: A growing body of research suggests that regular participation in long-term exercise is associated with enhanced cognitive function. However, less is known about the beneficial effects of acute exercise on semantic memory. This study investigated brain activation during a semantic memory task after a single session of exercise in healthy older adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, 26 participants (ages, 55–85 years) underwent two experimental visits on separate days. During each visit, participants engaged in 30 min of rest or stationary cycling exercise immediately before performing a Famous and Non-Famous name discrimination task during fMRI scanning. Results: Acute exercise was associated with significantly greater semantic memory activation (Famous>Non-Famous) in the middle frontal, inferior temporal, middle temporal, and fusiform gyri. A planned comparison additionally showed significantly greater activation in the bilateral hippocampus after exercise compared to rest. These effects were confined to correct trials, and as expected, there were no differences between conditions in response time or accuracy. Conclusions: Greater brain activation following a single session of exercise suggests that exercise may increase neural processes underlying semantic memory activation in healthy older adults. These effects were localized to the known semantic memory network, and thus do not appear to reflect a general or widespread increase in brain blood flow. Coupled with our prior exercise training effects on semantic memory-related activation, these data suggest the acute increase in neural activation after exercise may provide a stimulus for adaptation over repeated exercise sessions. (JINS, 2019, 25, 557–568)
We used a randomized crossover design with a washout period of 3–4 weeks to compare health literacy scores obtained using the computerized version with scores obtained using the standard interviewer-administered NVS. ANOVA models and McNemar’s tests assessed differences in outcomes assessed with each version of the NVS and order effects of the testing.
Participants were recruited from multicultural catchment areas in Ontario and Nova Scotia.
English- and French-speaking adults aged 18 years or older.
A total of 180 (81 %) of the 222 adults (112 English/110 French) initially recruited completed both the interviewer-NVS and computer-NVS. Scores for those who completed both assessments ranged from 0 to 6 with a mean of 3·63 (sd 2·11) for the computerized NVS and 3·41 (sd 2·21) for the interview-administered NVS. Few (n 18; seven English, eleven French) participants’ health literacy assessments differed between the two versions.
Overall, the computerized Canadian NVS performed as well as the interviewer-administered version for assessing health literacy levels of English- and French-speaking participants. This Canadian adaptation of the NVS provides Canadian researchers and public health practitioners with an easily administered health literacy assessment tool that can be used to address the needs of Canadians across health literacy levels and ultimately improve health outcomes.
The mosaic carpets decorating Palestinian synagogues in late antiquity took various forms but tend to focus on three recurring visual themes: the zodiac, a motif with origins in Greco-Roman religious art; the Jerusalem Temple, long in ruins but still very much alive in the Jewish imagination; and the Biblical story, often classics and easily identifiable to those well-versed in scripture. The latter was the programmatic focus of the frescoes of the Dura Europos synagogue and would maintain hegemony in episodic art on synagogue floors through late antiquity. The paradigm was thought to have shifted in 2013-14 when excavations at Huqoq uncovered a mosaic panel featuring war elephants that was claimed to portray the first extra-Biblical scene ever found in an ancient synagogue. Huqoq was a thriving Jewish village in the Late Roman period. Its basilica-type synagogue was paved twice with mosaic, the earlier of which is better preserved and includes the “elephant panel”. Most of the rest of the floor has not been fully published, although news releases and preliminary reports mention them and assign the floor a date in the 5th c. The floor does include well-known Biblical scenes along with a zodiac panel and two undated dedicatory inscriptions with decorative framing elements that include putti.
Mycobacterium marinum, a bacterium found in freshwater and saltwater, can infect persons with direct exposure to fish or aquariums. During December 2013, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene learned of four suspected or confirmed M. marinum skin or soft tissue infections (SSTIs) among persons who purchased whole fish from Chinese markets. Ninety-eight case-patients with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) SSTIs were identified with onset June 2013–March 2014. Of these, 77 (79%) were female. The median age was 62 years (range 30–91). Whole genome sequencing of clinical isolates revealed two main clusters and marked genetic diversity. Environmental samples from distributors yielded NTM though not M. marinum. We compared 56 case-patients with 185 control subjects who shopped in Chinese markets, frequency-matched by age group and sex. Risk factors for infection included skin injury to the finger or hand (odds ratio [OR]: 15·5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6·9–37·3), hand injury while preparing fish or seafood (OR 8·3; 95% CI 3·8–19·1), and purchasing tilapia (OR 3·6; 95% CI 1·1–13·9) or whiting (OR 2·7; 95% CI 1·1–6·6). A definitive environmental outbreak source was not identified.
The Atlantic–Mediterranean transition zone between the Alborán Sea and the Gulf of Cádiz constitutes the most prominent marine geographic barrier in European waters and includes known phylogeographic breaks such as the Strait of Gibraltar and the Almería-Oran Front. A genetic shift in this area has been previously documented for the European littoral shrimp Palaemon elegans. Here we carried out a phylogeographic analysis with the congeneric and sympatric species Palaemon serratus to test for similar intraspecific genetic differentiation and geographic structure. This littoral prawn is distributed in the Northeastern Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. We compared DNA sequences from the mitochondrial genes Cox1 and to a lesser extent from 16S rRNA of several Atlantic and Mediterranean populations. Furthermore, sequences from the nuclear gene Enolase were included for corroborating differences between Mediterranean and Atlantic individuals. A pronounced genetic differentiation was detected between the Mediterranean and Atlantic populations, amounting to 10.14% in Cox1 and 2.0% in 16S, indicating the occurrence of two independent evolutionary lineages. Interestingly, specimens from the Atlantic Gulf of Cadiz cluster together with the Mediterranean individuals, indicating that a biogeographic barrier appears to be located west of the Strait of Gibraltar.
We think that before reading our reactions to the focal article, readers should be aware of the history of the Licensure of Consulting and I-O Psychologists (LCIOP) Joint Task Force. The Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB) initiated the LCIOP, and the objectives of the task force were developed without input from Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP). In June 2013, Don Crowder informed Mark Nagy (SIOP Chair of State Affairs) that the ASPPB approved the establishment of a joint task force related to licensure of consulting and industrial and organizational (I-O) psychologists. The membership composition of the task force was determined by ASPPB, and SIOP was allotted one member. By including a member of SIOP, ASPPB can describe the task force as a cooperative effort and SIOP ostensibly has the opportunity to help shape recommendations made with regard to the licensure of I-O psychologists. Don Crowder now serves as the president of ASPPB. In Crowder's October 2016 ASPPB meeting address, he encouraged jurisdictions to review their statutes, and, if permitted, require licensure for both health service providers (HSPs) and general applied psychologists (GAPs).
The planar laminar flow resulting from the impingement of two gaseous jets of different density issuing into an open space from aligned steadily fed slot nozzles of semi-width
separated by a distance
is investigated by numerical and analytical methods. Specific consideration is given to the high Reynolds and low Mach number conditions typically present in counterflow-flame experiments, for which the flow is nearly inviscid and incompressible. It is shown that introduction of a density-weighted vorticity–streamfunction formulation effectively reduces the problem to one involving two jets of equal density, thereby removing the vortex-sheet character of the interface separating the two jet streams. Besides the geometric parameter
, the solution depends only on the shape of the velocity profiles in the feed streams and on the jet momentum-flux ratio. While conformal mapping can be used to determine the potential solution corresponding to uniform velocity profiles, numerical integration is required in general to compute rotational flows, including those arising with Poiseuille velocity profiles, with simplified solutions found in the limits
. The results are used to quantify the near-stagnation-point region, of interest in counterflow-flame studies, including the local value of the strain rate as well as the curvature of the separating interface and the variations of the strain rate away from the stagnation point.
There is a need for clinical tools to identify cultural issues in diagnostic assessment.
To assess the feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) in routine clinical practice.
Mixed-methods evaluation of field trial data from six countries. The CFI was administered to diagnostically diverse psychiatric out-patients during a diagnostic interview. In post-evaluation sessions, patients and clinicians completed debriefing qualitative interviews and Likert-scale questionnaires. The duration of CFI administration and the full diagnostic session were monitored.
Mixed-methods data from 318 patients and 75 clinicians found the CFI feasible, acceptable and useful. Clinician feasibility ratings were significantly lower than patient ratings and other clinician-assessed outcomes. After administering one CFI, however, clinician feasibility ratings improved significantly and subsequent interviews required less time.
The CFI was included in DSM-5 as a feasible, acceptable and useful cultural assessment tool.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
Defining minimal important difference (MID) is critical to interpreting patient-reported outcomes data and treatment efficacy in clinical trials. This study estimates the MID for the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale–Parent Report (WFIRS-P) and the Child Health and Illness Profile–Parent Report (CHIP-CE-PRF76) among parents of young people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the UK.
Parents of children (6–12 years; n=100) and adolescents (13–17 years; n=117) with ADHD completed a socio-demographic form, the CHIP-CE-PRF76, the WFIRS-P, and the Pediatric Quality of Life scale at baseline and 4 weeks later. At follow-up, a subset of parents completed anchor questions measuring change in the child/adolescent from baseline. MIDs were estimated using anchor-based and distribution-based methods, and separately for children and adolescents.
The MID estimates for overall change in the WFIRS-P total score ranged from 11.31 (standard error of measurement) to 13.47 (anchor) for the total sample. The range of MID estimates for the CHIP-CE-PRF76 varied by domain: 6.80–7.41 (satisfaction), 6.18–7.34 (comfort), 5.60–6.72 (resilience), 6.06–7.57 (risk avoidance), and 4.00–5.63 (achievement) for the total sample. Overall, MID estimates for WFIRS-P MID and CHIP-CE-PRF76 were slightly higher for adolescents than for children.
This study estimated MIDs for these instruments using several methods. The observed convergence of the MID estimates increases confidence in their reliability and could assist clinicians and decision makers in deriving meaningful interpretations of observed changes in the WFIRS-P and CHIP-CE in clinical trials and practice.
Background: Planning for neurology training necessitated a reflection on the experience of graduates. We explored practice characteristics, and training experience of recent graduates. Methods: Graduates from 2010-2014 completed a survey. Results: Response rate was 37% of 211. 56% were female. 91% were adult neurologists. 65% practiced in an outpatient setting. 63% worked in academics. 85% completed subspecialty training (median 1 year). 36% work 3 days a week or less. 82% took general call (median 1 night weekly). Role preparation was considered very good or excellent for most; however poor or fair ratings were 17% in advocacy and 8% in leadership. Training feedback was at least “good” for 87%. Burnout a few times a week or more was noted by 5% (6% during residency, particularly PGY1 and 5). 64% felt overly burdened by paperwork. Although most felt training was adequate, it was poor or fair at preparing for practice management (85%) and personal balance (55%). Most conditions were under-observed in training environment. Many noted a need for more independent practice development and community neurology. Conclusions: Although our training was found to be very good, some identified needs included advocacy training, and more training in general neurology in the longitudinal outpatient/community settings.
Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) completeness of reporting has never been assessed in New York City (NYC). We conducted a capture–recapture study to assess completeness of reporting, comparing IMD reports made to the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) and records identified in the New York State hospital discharge database [Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS)] by ICD-9 codes from 1989 to 2010. Reporting completeness estimates were calculated for the entire study period, and stratified by year, age group, clinical syndrome, and reporting system. A chart review of hospital medical records from 2008 to 2010 was conducted to validate hospital coding and to adjust completeness estimates. Overall, 2194 unique patients were identified from DOHMH (n = 1300) and SPARCS (n = 1525); 631 (29%) were present in both. Completeness of IMD reporting was 41% [95% confidence interval (CI) 40–43]. Differences in completeness were found by age, clinical syndrome, and reporting system. The chart review found 33% of hospital records from 2008 to 2010 had no documentation of IMD. Removal of those records improved completeness of reporting to 51% (95% CI 49–53). Our data showed a low concordance between what is reported to DOHMH and what is coded by hospitals as IMD. Additional guidance to clinicians on IMD reporting criteria may improve completeness of IMD reporting.
Mechanistic species niche models were used to map the seasonal spatio-temporal dynamics of biological control pressure. Future climate scenarios were applied to these models to identify potential future trends in the patterns of biological control pressure through space and time during an annual seasonal cycle. Peristenus digoneutis Loan (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is a parasitoid of Lygus Hahn (Hemiptera: Miridae) species, important pests of glasshouse and field crops throughout Europe and North America. Consistent with theoretical expectations, the modelled potential range of P. digoneutis expanded polewards and contracted from its southern temperature range limits. However, its distribution did not change consistently across continents or countries. Locations near the outer limits of the current modelled distribution were more sensitive to changes in future climates than locations near the central core. Weekly climate suitability and stress maps were developed to provide insight into seasonal adjustments that accompany changes in the potential range of pest species and their natural enemies. Climate change may increase the number of Lygus generations in western Canada allowing P. digoneutis to establish in areas, where biological control attempts had failed in the past.
An observational study of neuropsychological outcomes at preschool age of tiered lowered oxygen (O2) saturation targets in extremely preterm neonates. We studied 111 three-year-olds born <28 weeks’ gestational age. Fifty-nine participants born in 2009–2010 during a time-limited quality improvement initiative each received three-tiered stratification of oxygen rates (83–93% until age 32 weeks, 85–95% until age 35 weeks, and 95% after age 35 weeks), the TieredO2 group. Comparisons were made with 52 participants born in 2007–2008 when pre-initiative saturation targets were non-tiered at 89–100%, the Non-tieredO2 group. Neuropsychological domains included general intellectual, executive, attention, language, visuoperceptual, visual-motor, and fine and gross motor functioning. Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted. Group comparisons were not statistically significant. Descriptively, the TieredO2 group had better general intellectual, executive function, visual-motor, and motor performance and the Non-tieredO2 group had better language performance. Cohen’s d and confidence intervals around d were in similar direction and magnitude across measures. A large effect size was found for recall of digits-forward in participants born at 23 and 24 weeks’ gestation, d=0.99 and 1.46, respectively. Better TieredO2 outcomes in all domains except language suggests that the tiered oxygen saturation target method is not harmful and merits further investigation through further studies. Benefit in auditory attention appeared greatest in those born at 23 and 24 weeks. Participants in the tiered oxygen saturation group also had fewer ventilation days and a lower incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, perhaps explanatory for these neuropsychological outcomes at age 3. (JINS, 2015, 21, 322–331)
In situ temperature-resolved Near-edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) measurements were performed on thermo-active ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) – multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites 12 months following synthesis, and compared with spectra acquired shortly after synthesis to examine aging effects on non-covalent interactions. Room temperature spectra revealed no difference between unstrained and strained composites, suggesting relaxation. Further, energy shifts in π* C=C resonances indicated a change in π–π interactions between MWCNT walls and chemical dispersant, supported also by AFM phase imaging. Temperature-resolved NEXAFS analysis showed a lack of interaction between nanotubes and polymeric chains, suggesting the chemical dispersant unlatched from MWCNT walls. The extent of this effect is finally quantified through a comparative study of spectral trends.