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Violent protests are dramatic political events, yet we know little about the effect of these events on political behavior. While scholars typically treat violent protests as deliberate acts undertaken in pursuit of specific goals, due to a lack of appropriate data and difficulty in causal identification, there is scant evidence of whether riots can actually increase support for these goals. Using geocoded data, we analyze measures of policy support before and after the 1992 Los Angeles riot—one of the most high-profile events of political violence in recent American history—that occurred just prior to an election. Contrary to some expectations from the academic literature and the popular press, we find that the riot caused a marked liberal shift in policy support at the polls. Investigating the sources of this shift, we find that it was likely the result of increased mobilization of both African American and white voters. Remarkably, this mobilization endures over a decade later.
Poor utilization of amino acids contributes to losses of milk protein yield in dairy cows exposed to heat stress (HS). Our objective was to test the effect of essential amino acids on milk production in lactating dairy cows exposed to short-term HS conditions. To achieve this objective, 12 multiparous, lactating Holstein cows were assigned to two environments (thermoneutral (THN) or HS) from days 1 to 14 in a split-plot type cross-over design. All cows received 0 g/day of essential amino acids from days 1 to 7 (negative control (NC)) followed by an intravenous infusion of l-methionine (12 g/day), l-lysine (21 g/day), l-leucine (35 g/day), l-isoleucine (15 g/day) and l-valine (15 g/day, methionine, lysine and branched-chain amino acids (ML+BCAA)) from days 8 to 14. The basal diet was composed of ryegrass silage and hay, and a concentrate mix. This diet supplied 44 g of methionine, 125 g of lysine, 167 g of leucine, 98 g of isoleucine and 109 g of valine per day to the small intestine of THN cows. Temperature–humidity index was maintained below 66 for the THN environment, whereas the index was maintained above 68, peaking at 76, for 14 continuous h/day for the HS environment. Heat stress conditioning increased the udder temperature from 37.0°C to 39.6°C. Cows that received the ML+BCAA treatment had greater p.m. rectal and vaginal temperatures (0.50°C and 0.40°C, respectively), and respiration rate (8 breaths/min) compared with those on the NC treatment and exposed to a HS environment. However, neither NC nor ML+BCAA affected rectal or vaginal temperatures and respiration rates in the THN environment. Compared with THN, the HS environment reduced dry matter intake (1.48 kg/day), milk yield (2.82 kg/day) and milk protein yield (0.11 kg/day). However, compared with NC, the ML+BCAA treatment increased milk protein percent by 0.07 points. For the THN environment, the ML+BCAA treatment increased concentrations of milk urea nitrogen. For the HS environment, the ML+BCAA treatment decreased plasma concentrations of arginine, ornithine and citrulline; however, differences were not observed for the THN environment. In summary, HS elicited expected changes in production; however, infusions of ML+BCAA failed to increase milk protein yield. Lower dry matter intake and greater heat load in response to ML+BCAA contributed to the lack of response in milk production in HS cows. The ML+BCAA treatment may have reduced the breakdown of muscle protein in heat-stressed cows.
In preparing the present report, which covers the period July 1, 1984, to June 30, 1987, close collaboration has taken place between Commission 10 and 12, the two solar commissions, in order to avoid duplications and to insure that pertinent subjects are treated. The reader is referred to the report of Commission 12 for further solar topics. The proceedings are found at the beginning of the references for each section, followed by the usual alphabetical listing. In some sections this listing refers to the previous proceedings by their numbers; in others we retain the conventional reference. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the excellent work of the reviewers who wrote the different sections of this report, and all the members of the commission who provided information on research to be included.
Clementine II is a Department of Defense (DoD) and industry interplanetary mission designed to flyby several asteroids and release science probes that will impact these asteroids. Candidate asteroids were identified and a nominal and backup mission was chosen from these candidates. The mission design is discussed and the baseline encounters are presented. A backup mission is briefly described. A mass breakdown for the baseline mission is provided as well as the proposed mission sensors. The final encounter approach B-Plane errors are determined and analyzed. A final summary of the Clementine II mission is presented.
Rapid ionization of Cs vapor in a heat pipe at 0.05 torr was achieved by pumping the 6s 2S½ – 7p 2P½ transition (f=0.007)1 with a flash-pumped dye laser at 4593.2A and I MW power output. Photoabsorptian initiated at the end of the laser pulse(≃ 0.5/s) showed the 5p5ns and nd series below and above the 5p52P3/2 threshold at 535.4A. Broad Beutler - Fano resonances appeared in the d series above threshold. The spectrum was recorded photographically on a 10.7m grazing incidence spectrograph using a continuum background generated by a BRV high-voltage spark source with a uranium anode. We will compare the line-shapes and the quantum defect (Lu-Fano2) plot with the predictions of a relativistic random phase calculation.
Processing of astronomical observational data of several time services and the publication of Universal Time of emission of time signals has been carried out in the USSR continuously for fifty years. Currently the Universal Time computations are made in the USSR State Time and Frequency Service using the observational data of eleven Soviet time services and ten time services of socialist countries that have volunteered to participate. The functioning of this system simultaneously with the BIH system that unites time services from all over the world has certain practical advantages. The Soviet Universal Time scale UT1 (SU) may be influenced by some geophysical effects which are characteristic of the Eurasian continent, and consequently, it may be used advantageously for scientific and practical purposes in this region. The agreement between different time scales, produced by various methods and observational data, also makes it possible to evaluate the reliability of these scales.
The Ross Sea polynya is one of the most productive regions in the Southern Ocean. However, limited access and high spatio-temporal variability of physical and biological processes limit the use of conventional oceanographic methods to measure early season primary productivity. High-resolution observations from two Seagliders provide insights into the timing of a bloom in the southern Ross Sea polynya in December 2010. Changes in chlorophyll and oxygen concentrations are used to assess bloom dynamics. Using a ratio of dissolved oxygen to carbon, net primary production is estimated over the duration of the bloom showing a sensitive balance between net autotrophy and heterotrophy. The two gliders, observing spatially distinct regions during the same period, found net community production rates of -0.9±0.7 and 0.7±0.4 g C m-2 d-1. The difference highlights the spatial variability of biological processes and is probably caused by observing different stages of the bloom. The challenge of obtaining accurate primary productivity estimates highlights the need for increased observational efforts, particularly focusing on subsurface processes not resolved using surface or remote observations. Without an increased observational effort and the involvement of emerging technologies, it will not be possible to determine the seasonal trophic balance of the Ross Sea polynya and quantify the shelf’s importance in carbon export.
We have investigated BisGMA-TEGDMA dental composites with varying mass fractions of hydroxyapatite and silica filler. Commercially available dental composites with 60% silica filler were synthesized in the presence of nanometer-sized hydroxyapatite crystals. We have compared the mechanical properties of BisGMA-TEGDMA samples filled with silica only and those filled with silica and hydroxyapatite particles. We report on hardness as a function of crystalline content as determined by nanoindentation and microindentation.
Procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide is a collagen III cleavage product released in blood. The serum levels of this propeptide in adults with dilated cardiomyopathy are associated with cardiac remodelling and prognosis. The utility of procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide as a biomarker in paediatric dilated cardiomyopathy is unknown.
This was a prospective, longitudinal study of children with dilated cardiomyopathy and changes in procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide. The serum level of propeptide was measured serially, compared with paediatric normal values, and correlated with clinical status and left ventricular size and function on echocardiograms and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.
Procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide was measured serially in 149 samples from 39 patients, age 9.0±6.4 years, followed up for 16.8±16.3 months. Procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide in dilated cardiomyopathy was higher than in normal children. On multivariate analyses, procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide had a positive correlation with left ventricular dilation, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter index (p<0.0001), and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter Z-score (p=0.0003), and a negative correlation with shortening fraction changes over time (p=0.001). Patients with myocarditis (n=12) had higher procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide values than those with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (n=20).
Procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide increases with left ventricular dilation and decreases with improvement in systolic function in paediatric dilated cardiomyopathy, indicating a role as a biomarker of cardiac remodelling in children. The diagnostic utility of procollagen type III amino-terminal propeptide to differentiate myocarditis from idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy warrants further investigation.
Background: Children with myocarditis have multiple risk factors for thrombotic events, yet the role of antithrombotic therapy is unclear in this population. We hypothesised that thrombotic events in critically ill children with myocarditis are common and that children with myocarditis are at higher risk for thrombotic events than children with non-inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy. Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of all children presenting to a single centre cardiac intensive care unit with myocarditis from 1995 to 2008. A comparison group of children with dilated cardiomyopathy was also examined. Antithrombotic regimens were recorded. The primary outcome of thrombotic events included intracardiac clots and any thromboembolic events. Results: Out of 45 cases with myocarditis, 40% were biopsy-proven, 24% viral polymerase chain reaction-supported, and 36% diagnosed based on high clinical suspicion. There were two (4.4%) thrombotic events in the myocarditis group and three (6.7%) in the dilated cardiomyopathy group (p = 1.0). Neither the use of any antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy, use of intravenous immune globulin, presence of any arrhythmia, nor need for mechanical circulatory support were predictive of thrombotic events in the myocarditis, dilated cardiomyopathy, or combined groups. Conclusions: Thrombotic events in critically ill children with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy occurred in 6% of the combined cohort. There was no difference in thrombotic events between inflammatory and non-inflammatory cardiomyopathy groups, suggesting that the decision to use antithrombotic prophylaxis should be based on factors other than the underlying aetiology of a child's acute decompensated heart failure.
Although widely used, the term repellency needs to be employed with care when applied to ticks and other periodic or permanent ectoparasites. Repellency has classically been used to describe the effects of a substance that causes a flying arthropod to make oriented movements away from its source. However, for crawling arthropods such as ticks, the term commonly subsumes a range of effects that include arthropod irritation and consequent avoiding or leaving the host, failing to attach, to bite, or to feed. The objective of the present article is to highlight the need for clarity, to propose consensus descriptions and methods for the evaluation of various effects on ticks caused by chemical substances.