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The aim of this study is to develop predictive models to predict organ at risk (OAR) complication level, classification of OAR dose-volume and combination of this function with our in-house developed treatment decision support system.
Materials and methods
We analysed the support vector machine and decision tree algorithm for predicting OAR complication level and toxicity in order to integrate this function into our in-house radiation treatment planning decision support system. A total of 12 TomoTherapyTM treatment plans for prostate cancer were established, and a hundred modelled plans were generated to analyse the toxicity prediction for bladder and rectum.
The toxicity prediction algorithm analysis showed 91·0% accuracy in the training process. A scatter plot for bladder and rectum was obtained by 100 modelled plans and classification result derived. OAR complication level was analysed and risk factor for 25% bladder and 50% rectum was detected by decision tree. Therefore, it was shown that complication prediction of patients using big data-based clinical information is possible.
We verified the accuracy of the tested algorithm using prostate cancer cases. Side effects can be minimised by applying this predictive modelling algorithm with the planning decision support system for patient-specific radiotherapy planning.
Pathological gambling (PG) is a severe and persistent pattern of problem gambling that has been aligned with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, no study has compared the neurocognitive profiles of individuals with PG and OCD.
We compared neurocognitive functioning, including executive function, verbal learning and memory, and visual–spatial organization and memory among 16 pathological gamblers, 31 drug-naïve OCD subjects, and 52 healthy controls.
The only neurocognitive marker common to both groups was increased fragmentation errors on the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF). The PG subjects showed increased nonperseverative error on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and organization difficulties in the ROCF, whereas the OCD subjects revealed longer response times on the Stroop test and retention difficulties on the immediate recall scale of the ROCF.
A more careful approach is required in considering whether PG is a part of the OCD spectrum, as little evidence of neurocognitive overlap between PG and OCD has been reported.
Ferromagnetic Cu-doped GaN film was grown on a GaN-buffered sapphire (0001) substrate by a hybrid physical-chemical-vapor-deposition method (HPCVD). The GaCuN film (Cu: 3.6 at.%) has a highly c-axis-oriented hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure, which is similar to GaN buffer but without any secondary phases such as metallic Cu, CuxNy, and CuxGay compounds. Two weak near-band edge (NBE) emissions at 3.38 eV and donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) transition at 3.2 eV with a typical strong broad yellow emission were observed in photoluminescence spectra for GaN buffer. In contrast, the yellow emission was completely quenched in GaCuN film because Ga vacancies causing the observed yellow emission in undoped GaN were substituted by Cu atoms. In addition, GaCuN film exhibits a blue shift of NBE emission, which could be explained with the +2 oxidation state of Cu ions, replacing +3 Ga ions resulting in band gap increment. The valance sate of Cu in GaCuN film was also confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The GaCuN film shows ferromagnetic ordering and possesses a residual magnetization of 0.12 emu/cm3 and a coercive field of 264 Oe at room temperature. The unpaired spins in Cu2+ ions (d9) are most likely to be responsible for the observed ferromagnetism in GaCuN.
MgO thin films are widely used in plasma display panels (PDPs) to protect the dielectric layer, which is composed of PbO2, B2O3, and SiO2 compound, against ion bombardment during discharge. To improve the electrical properties of the MgO thin films, (Ba,Sr,Ca)CO3 or LaB6, which has a lower work function than that of MgO, added to the MgO films. The effects of (Ba,Sr,Ca)CO3 or LaB6 addition on the electrical properties, microstructure, and electronic band structure were investigated. In the case where (Ba,Sr,Ca)CO3 was added, the firing voltage, which is the voltage when the panel is ignited the first time during increasing input voltage, was about 18.4 V lower than that of the conventional MgO films. In the case where LaB6 was added, the firing voltage was also reduced by about 24 V. The luminance and luminous efficiency were also increased. Of particular interest was the valence band spectra changed after adding (Ba,Sr,Ca)CO3 or LaB6. The valence band edge, which is the top of the valence band, was shifted to lower binding states and the width of the valence band was increased. Moreover, the band gap was slightly reduced. Considering the emission mechanism of MgO films in plasma display panels, these results mean that the secondary electrons can be ejected more easily and the ejected electrons have more energy. Therefore, the addition of (Ba,Sr,Ca)CO3 or LaB6 might improve the electrical properties.
We have studied the structural properties of hydrogenated carbon films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The substrate holder in reaction chamber could be biased and be heated. The Raman peak intensity at 1350 cm−1 was increased by reducing CH4 flow rate. The film structure changed from soft a-C:H to hard carbon with decreasing CH4 flow rate, resulted from increased self-bias. The 1520 cm−1 peak shifts to higher frequency by reducing the CH4flow rate, probably resulted from the increased internal stress.
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