The Treaty of Lisbon introduced an extension of locus standi for private claimants by amending Article 263(4) TFEU. The provision contains a new third variant for actions against ‘regulatory acts which do not entail implementing measures’. However, it is far from clear to what extent the existing framework has actually been reformed. The CJEU has not yet had the opportunity to define the term ‘regulatory act’. In our view, this term has to be interpreted narrowly. It merely encompasses non-legislative acts enacted under Articles 290 and 291 TFEU. Those subordinate legal acts are characterised by a lack of democratic legitimacy, which justifies a lower threshold for judicial review. Hence, the possibilities for an action for annulment remain limited for private applicants. Effective remedies against legal acts of EU law are provided primarily by the courts of the Member States. The tentative reforms brought by the Treaty of Lisbon did not change the decentralised structure of the EU’s judicial system.