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Mainstream political science literature on clientelism tends to focus on its supply side and on vote-buying, whereas ethnographic work often emphasizes client agency and incentives and paints a more diverse image of clientelism. We bridge the gap between these literatures by conducting a meta-analysis of ethnographic literature on clientelism from the client perspective. We code characteristics of clientelistic exchanges described in this work. We use cluster analysis and principal component analysis to systematize these data. Cluster analysis groups exchanges into three core subtypes of clientelism (“vote-buying”, “relational”, and “collective”); principal component analysis delivers two fundamental dimensions of clientelism: equal-unequal and individual-universal. We show that the two dimensions are associated with different aspects of client welfare and trade-offs from the client perspective. Our results reaffirm and reconcile existing deductive typologies of clientelism and can serve as a basis for a structured study of the demand side of clientelism.
The Pyrenean brown bear Ursus arctos population in the mountains between France and Spain is one of the smallest and most threatened populations of large carnivores in Europe. We assessed trends in brown bear habitat use in the Pyrenees and investigated the underlying environmental and anthropogenic drivers. Using detection/non-detection data collected during 2008–2014 through non-invasive methods, we developed dynamic occupancy models, accounting for local colonization and extinction processes. We found two non-connected core areas of occupancy, one in the west and the other in the centre of the Pyrenees, with a significant decrease in habitat use overall during 2008–2014. We also found a negative correlation between human density and bear occupancy, in agreement with previous studies on brown bear habitat suitability. Our results confirm the Critically Endangered status of the Pyrenean population of brown bears.
The Collserola Range includes a representative stratigraphic succession of the Palaeozoic of the central part of the Catalan Coastal Ranges, ranging from Cambro-Ordovician to Carboniferous times. In this paper we present an up-to-date review of the stratigraphy and structure of the Palaeozoic of the Collserola Range, and provide geochemical and Sm–Nd isotope data to constrain the pre-Mesozoic crustal evolution of this sector of the Variscan Belt. Geochemical compositions indicate that the Palaeozoic siliciclastic rocks of the Collserola Range were fed by a relatively mature heterogeneous source of sediment, comprising quartz-rich sediments to intermediate igneous rocks. The siliciclastic rocks of the Collserola Range show great geochemical affinity with the turbidites of passive margins. The Sm–Nd signature of the siliciclastic rocks is compatible with those of the Palaeozoic and late Proterozoic fine-grained siliciclastic rocks of the neighbouring terrains of SW Europe. There is a small decrease of the εNdT with decreasing age of sedimentation from the Cambro-Ordovician to the Carboniferous, suggesting an increase of the amount of more ‘juvenile’ material. The presence of small volumes of alkaline basaltic rocks provides evidence for the input of juvenile material in the early Palaeozoic basin and suggests that an extensional tectonic regime prevailed during the Cambro-Ordovician sedimentation. From a geodynamic point of view, the overall analysis of the data implies that the Palaeozoic rocks of the Catalan Coastal Ranges were part of the Northern Gondwana passive margin before the closure of the Rheic Ocean and the subsequent Variscan Orogeny.
Submillimeter observations are a key for answering many of the big questions in modern-day astrophysics, such as how stars and planets form, how galaxies evolve, and how material cycles through stars and the interstellar medium. With the upcoming large submillimeter facilities ALMA and Herschel a new window will open to study these questions. ARTIST is a project funded in context of the European ASTRONET program with the aim of developing a next generation model suite for comprehensive multi-dimensional radiative transfer calculations of the dust and line emission, as well as their polarization, to help interpret observations with these groundbreaking facilities.
In the early 1900s, the wolf (Canis lupus) was extirpated from France and Switzerland. There is growing evidence that the species is presently recolonizing these countries in the western Alps. By sequencing the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of various samples mainly collected in the field (scats, hairs, regurgitates, blood or tissue; n = 292), we could (1) develop a non-invasive method enabling the unambiguous attribution of these samples to wolf, fox (Vulpes vulpes) or dog (Canis familiaris), among others; (2) demonstrate that Italian, French and Swiss wolves share the same mtDNA haplotype, a haplotype that has never been found in any other wolf population world-wide. Combined together, field and genetic data collected over 10 years corroborate the scenario of a natural expansion of wolves from the Italian source population. Furthermore, such a genetic approach is of conservation significance, since it has important consequences for management decisions. This first long-term report using non-invasive sampling demonstrates that long-distance dispersers are common, supporting the hypothesis that individuals may often attempt to colonize far from their native pack, even in the absence of suitable corridors across habitats characterized by intense human activities.
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