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National health insurance (NHI) Taiwan has provided additional markups on dental service fees for people with specific disabilities, and the expenditure has increased significantly from TWD473 million (USD15 million) in 2016 to TWD722 million (USD24 million) in 2022. The purpose of this study was to determine oral health risk and to develop a risk assessment model for capitation outpatient dental payments in children with Autism.
Based on the literature and expert opinion, we developed a level of oral health risk model from the claim records of 2019. The model uses oral outpatient claim data to analyze: (i) the degree of caries disease; (ii) the level of dental fear or cooperation; and (iii) the level of tooth structure. Each factor was given a score from zero to four and a total score was calculated. Low-, medium-, and high-risk groups were formed based on the total points. The oral health risk capitation models are estimated by ordinary least squares using an individual’s annual outpatient dental expenditure in 2019 as the dependent variable. For subgroups based on age group and level of disability, expenditures predicted by the models are compared with actual outpatient dental expenditures. Predictive R-squared and predictive ratios were used to evaluate the model’s predictability.
The demographic variables, level of oral health risk, preventive dental care, and the type of dental health care predicted 30 percent of subsequent outpatient dental expenditure in children with autism. For subgroups (age group and disability level) of high-risk patients, the model substantially overpredicted the expenditure, whereas underprediction occurred in the low-risk group.
The risk-adjusted model based on principal oral health was more accurate in predicting an individual’s future expenditure than the relevant study in Taiwan. The finding provides insight into the important risk factor in the outpatient dental expenditure of children with autism and the fund planning of dental services for people with specific disabilities.
Improvement of environmental cleaning in hospitals has been shown to decrease in-hospital cross transmission of pathogens. Several objective methods, including aerobic colony counts (ACCs), the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence assay, and the fluorescent marker method have been developed to assess cleanliness. However, the standard interpretation of cleanliness using the fluorescent marker method remains uncertain.
To assess the fluorescent marker method as a tool for determining the effectiveness of hospital cleaning.
A prospective survey study.
An academic medical center.
The same 10 high-touch surfaces were tested after each terminal cleaning using (1) the fluorescent marker method, (2) the ATP assay, and (3) the ACC method. Using the fluorescent marker method under study, surfaces were classified as totally clean, partially clean, or not clean. The ACC method was used as the standard for comparison.
According to the fluorescent marker method, of the 830 high-touch surfaces, 321 surfaces (38.7%) were totally clean (TC group), 84 surfaces (10.1%) were partially clean (PC group), and 425 surfaces (51.2%) were not clean (NC group). The TC group had significantly lower ATP and ACC values (mean ± SD, 428.7 ± 1,180.0 relative light units [RLU] and 15.6 ± 77.3 colony forming units [CFU]/100 cm2) than the PC group (1,386.8 ± 2,434.0 RLU and 34.9 ± 87.2 CFU/100 cm2) and the NC group (1,132.9 ± 2,976.1 RLU and 46.8 ± 119.2 CFU/100 cm2).
The fluorescent marker method provided a simple, reliable, and real-time assessment of environmental cleaning in hospitals. Our results indicate that only a surface determined to be totally clean using the fluorescent marker method could be considered clean.
Asians and Pacific Islanders have higher circulating serum ferritin (SF) compared with Caucasians but the clinical significance of this is unclear. There is a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Taiwanese Indigenous than Han Chinese. Genetically, Indigenous are related to Austronesians and account for 2 % of Taiwan's population. We tested the hypothesis that accumulation of Fe in the body contributes to the ethnic/racial disparities in MetS in Taiwan.
A population-based, cross-sectional study.
National Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan and Penghu Island.
A total of 2638 healthy adults aged ≥19 years. Three ethnic groups were included.
Han Chinese and Indigenous people had comparable levels of SF. Austronesia origin was independently associated with MetS (OR = 2·61, 95 % CI 2·02, 3·36). After multiple adjustments, the odds for MetS (OR = 2·49, 95 % CI 1·15, 5·28) was significantly higher among Indigenous people in the highest SF tertile compared with those in the lowest tertile. Hakka and Penghu Islanders yielded the lowest risks (OR = 1·08, 95 % CI 0·44, 2·65 and OR = 1·21, 95 % CI 0·52, 2·78, respectively). Indigenous people in the highest SF tertile had increased risk for abnormal levels of fasting glucose (OR = 2·34, 95 % CI 1·27, 4·29), TAG (OR = 1·94, 95 % CI 1·11, 3·39) and HDL-cholesterol (OR = 2·10, 95 % CI 1·18, 3·73) than those in the lowest SF tertile.
Our results raise the possibility that ethnic/racial differences in body Fe store susceptibility may contribute to racial and geographic disparities in MetS.
In this paper, we propose a new conservative semi-Lagrangian (SL) finite difference (FD) WENO scheme for linear advection equations, which can serve as a base scheme for the Vlasov equation by Strang splitting . The reconstruction procedure in the proposed SL FD scheme is the same as the one used in the SL finite volume (FV) WENO scheme . However, instead of inputting cell averages and approximate the integral form of the equation in a FV scheme, we input point values and approximate the differential form of equation in a FD spirit, yet retaining very high order (fifth order in our experiment) spatial accuracy. The advantage of using point values, rather than cell averages, is to avoid the second order spatial error, due to the shearing in velocity (v) and electrical field (E) over a cell when performing the Strang splitting to the Vlasov equation. As a result, the proposed scheme has very high spatial accuracy, compared with second order spatial accuracy for Strang split SL FV scheme for solving the Vlasov-Poisson (VP) system. We perform numerical experiments on linear advection, rigid body rotation problem; and on the Landau damping and two-stream instabilities by solving the VP system. For comparison, we also apply (1) the conservative SL FD WENO scheme, proposed in  for incompressible advection problem, (2) the conservative SL FD WENO scheme proposed in  and (3) the non-conservative version of the SL FD WENO scheme in  to the same test problems. The performances of different schemes are compared by the error table, solution resolution of sharp interface, and by tracking the conservation of physical norms, energies and entropies, which should be physically preserved.
A total of 80 patients, diagnosed by echocardiography as having ventricular septal defect with aortic valvar prolapse, underwent cardiac catheterization and surgery. Echocardiographic and angiographic results were compared with surgical findings. The ventricular septal defects as observed during surgery were found to be doubly committed and subarterial in 49 (61%), muscular outlet in 10 (13%), and perimembranous in 21(26%). The location had been erroneously categorized by echocardiography and angiography in 12 (15%) and in 15 (19%) patients, respectively. Prolapse of the right coronary leaflet of the aortic valve, as documented by echocardiography, was confirmed by angiography in all but two cases. Prolapse of the noncoronary leaflet was detected by both imaging modalities in three patients. Prolapse of the right coronary and noncoronary leaflets was observed at surgery in 49 and three patients, respectively. The mean size of the ventricular septal defect, when measured by echocardiography, was significantly smaller than that found following surgical measurements (3.3±1.3 vs 8.4±3.8 mm, p<0.001). Our study showed that the ventricular septal defect was erroneously classified in the presence of prolapse of the aortic valve in 15% and 19% of our cases by echocardiography and angiography, respectively. The herniated sinus of Valsalva forming the “roof” of the ventricular septal defect probably redirected the jet across the defect to cause the errors in interpretation. Echocardiography, nevertheless, is as reliable as angiography in our hands in the follow-up of patients with ventricular septal defect opening to the outlet of the right ventricle.
Obstruction to the pulmonary venous return is a frequent associated anomaly in patients with isomerism of the right atrial appendages. Yet, preoperative diagnosis by means of either cross-sectional echocardiography or cardiac catheterization can be intriguing. Indeed, the presence of two morphologically right lungs reduce considerably the size of window for precordial echocardiography. Also, in the presence of severe pulmonary stenosis or atresia, it can be difficult at cardiac catheterization to enter the pulmonary trunk. In these patients, construction of a systemic-to-pulmonary artery anastomosis will almost inevitably result in pulmonary edema. Between May 1984 and December 1988, five patients with isomerism of the right atrial appendages, severely decreased pulmonary blood flow and concealed obstruction to the pulmonary venous return were admitted to our hospital. A modified Blalock Taussig shunt by interposition of a polytetrafluoroethylene prosthesis was performed in each patients and all of them developed pulmonary edema. Three patients died despite appropriate medical treatment. The remaining two patients were successfully treated by banding of the Blalock shunt. This was performed in the first patient at the time of the initial surgery, when prior to closure of chest, pulmonary edema became manifest. The second patient who developed pulmonary edema early postoperatively, underwent cardiac catheterization to confirm the clinical diagnosis of obstruction to the pulmonary venous return. Reduction of blood flow through the Blalock shunt with resolution of edema was initially achieved by means of a partially occluding balloon catheter. Pulmonary edema recurred one week later because of rupture of the balloon and the patient eventually underwent a successful banding of the Blalock shunt through a left thoracotomy. We conclude that preoperative assessment of the pulmonary venous return is mandatory in patients with right isomerism and reduced pulmonary blood flow. Construction of a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt in the presence of concealed obstruction to the pulmonary venous return will almost inevitably cause pulmonary edema. Banding of the Blalock shunt can be successful, as observed in our experience, for the management of this serious complication.
To investigate the potential reservoir and mode of transmission of pandrug-resistant (PDR) Acinetobacter baumannii in a 7-day-old neonate who developed PDR A. baumannii bacteremia that was presumed to be the iceberg of a potential outbreak.
Outbreak investigation based on a program of prospective hospital-wide surveillance for nosocomial infection.
A 24-bed neonatal intensive care unit in a 2,200-bed major teaching hospital in Taiwan that provides care for critically ill neonates born in this hospital and those transferred from other hospitals.
Samples from 33 healthcare workers' hands and 40 samples from the environment were cultured. Surveillance cultures of anal swab specimens and sputum samples were performed for neonates on admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and every 2 weeks until discharge. The PDR A. baumannii isolates, defined as isolates resistant to all currently available systemic antimicrobials except polymyxin B, were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Control measures consisted of implementing contact isolation, reinforcing hand hygiene adherence, cohorting of nurses, and environmental cleaning.
One culture of an environmental sample and no cultures of samples from healthcare workers' hands grew PDR A. baumannii. The positive culture result involved a sample obtained from a ventilation tube used by the index patient. During the following 2 months, active surveillance identified PDR A. baumannii in 8 additional neonates, and isolates from 7 had the same electrokaryotype. Of the 9 neonates colonized or infected with PDR A. baumannii, 1 died from an unrelated condition. Reinforcement of infection control measures resulted in 100% adherence to proper hand hygiene protocol. The outbreak was stopped without compromising patient care.
In the absence of environmental contamination, transient hand carriage by personnel who cared for neonates colonized or infected with PDR A. baumannii was suspected to be the mode of transmission. Vigilance, prompt intervention and strict adherence to hand hygiene protocol were the key factors that led to the successful control of this outbreak. Active surveillance appears to be an effective measure to identify potential transmitters and reservoirs of PDR A. baumannii.
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