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To validate an FFQ for the assessment of dietary EPA and DHA against their relative concentrations in red blood cells (RBC).
Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data. Intakes of marine food products and EPA and DHA were estimated by FFQ on the basis of consumption of marine food products in the last month. Fatty acid composition of RBC membranes was quantified by GC.
Saint-François d’Assise Hospital, Québec, Canada.
A total of sixty-five middle-aged women who participated in a randomized clinical trial.
Spearman’s correlation coefficient between intake of EPA, DHA and EPA + DHA and their corresponding concentration in RBC was 0·46, 0·40 and 0·42, respectively (all P < 0·05). Multiple regression analysis of EPA+DHA intake and RBC EPA + DHA concentration indicated positive and significant correlations for oily fish (β = 0·44, 95 % CI 0·16, 0·72, P = 0·0027), total fish (β = 0·42, 95 % CI 0·19, 0·64, P = 0·0005) and marine food products (β = 0·42, 95 % CI 0·20, 0·64, P = 0·0003). No other marine food products significantly predicted RBC EPA + DHA concentration.
Although the present validation study was undertaken among middle-aged women with low consumption of marine food products (<3 servings/week), our FFQ provided estimates of EPA and DHA intakes that correlated fairly well with their RBC concentrations. However, the absence of correlations between EPA + DHA intakes from different marine species suggests that a minimum EPA + DHA intake is necessary to observe a relationship with RBC EPA + DHA concentrations.
The dopamine D3 receptor gene (DRD3) is a meaningful candidate gene because it unifies the dopamine and the limbic hypotheses for schizophrenia. We tested for an allelic association between schizophrenia and the DRD3 Mscl alleles, hypothesising heterogeneity between childhood/early adolescence-onset schizophrenia (CO-SZ) and adult-onset schizophrenia (A-SZ).
The frequencies of the DRD3 alleles were compared between 70 DSM-III-R schizophrenics (35 CO-SZ and 35 A-SZ) and 79 controls.
Compared with the controls, the subsample of A-SZ, but not CO-SZ, showed an over-proportion (P = 0.025) of allele 1. The association was not found in the total sample, combining the two subsamples.
Consistently with former studies, our data suggest an aetiological heterogeneity between CO-SZ and A-SZ and a possible specificity of the excess of allele 1 to the familial form of schizophrenia and to schizophrenia with a better outcome.
The aim of this study was to verify the presence and stability across life of the positive/negative distinction in early-onset schizophrenia (EO-SZ) through a longitudinal factor analysis of the schizophrenic dimensions, and to identify the factors predicting several indices of long-term outcome for EO-SZ.
Forty children consecutively referred for DSM–III–R schizophrenia (SZ) in a specific catchment area comprised the sample.
Across a 14.8-year follow-up, longitudinal factor analysis identified two separate factors corresponding to the positive and negative symptom dimensions. We also observed that: the GAS rated over the last three years of adult illness and the severity of negative symptoms during the stabilised interepisode intervals in adulthood were the indices of adult outcome that were most easily predicted; and the best childhood predictors of adult outcome were premorbid functioning and severity of positive and negative symptoms during acute episodes.
The presence of premorbid non-psychotic behaviour disturbances (NPBD) and premorbid developmental problems was not related to severity of outcome, in contrast to the former variables.
Little is known about the long-term outcome of schizophrenia that has its onset during childhood and early adolescence (early-onset schizophrenia, or EO-SZ). Whether or not EO-SZ is an aetiologically separate form of schizophrenia (SZ) is unresolved.
The study was a 14.8-year follow-up, using methods such as systematic sampling, evaluation of possible non-respondent bias, consensus best-estimate diagnoses (DSM–III–R) made independently in childhood and adulthood, measures of positive and negative dimensions, of non-psychotic behaviour disturbances (NPBD) and of developmental problems before the appearance of SZ.
There was high stability of EO-SZ (n=40) diagnoses (mean onset at 14.0 years) until adulthood (mean age at follow-up 28.8 years) but a lower stability of positive and negative schizophrenic dimensions. There was a poor outcome of EO-SZ, a strong over-representation of males but few gender differences, and no effect of age of onset on clinical features and outcome.
EO-SZ taken as a whole shows no qualitative differences to adult-onset SZ. However, a distinction through the onset of preschizophrenic developmental problems or NPBD might be a way to investigate heterogeneity within EO-SZ.
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