Akaike, H. (1969) Fitting autoregressive models for prediction. Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 21, 243–247.
Ambelas, A. (1992) Preschizophrenics: adding to the evidence, sharpening the focus. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 401–404.
American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd edn, revised), . Washington, DC: APA.
Andreasen, N. C. & Grove, W. M. (1986) Evaluation of positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Psychiatrie et Psychobiologie, 1, 108–121.
Andreasen, N. C., Flaum, M. & Arndt, S. (1992) The comprehensive assessment of symptoms and history (CASH). Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 615–623.
Arndt, S., Alliger, R. J. & Andreasen, N. C. (1991) The distinction of positive and negative symptoms: the failure of a two-dimensional model. British Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 317–322.
Arndt, S., Andreasen, N. C., Flaum, M., et al (1995) A longitudinal study of symptom dimensions in schizophrenia. Prediction and patterns of change. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 352–360.
Asarnow, R. F. & Asarnow, R. J. (1994a) Childhood-onset schizophrenia: Editors' introduction. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 20, 591–597.
Asarnow, R. J., Tomson, M. C. & Goldstein, M. J. (1994b) Childhood-onset schizophrenia: a follow-up study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 20, 599–617.
Beitchman, J. H. (1983) Childhood schizophrenia: a review and comparison with adult onset schizophrenia. Revue de psychiatrie, 8, 25–37.
Bilder, R. M., Mukherjee, S., Rieder, R. O., et al (1985) Symptomatic and neuropsychological components of defect states. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 11, 409–419.
Bird, H. R., Canino, G., Rubio-Stipec, M., et al (1987) Further measures of the psychometric properties of the children's global assessment scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, 821–824.
Bland, R. C. (1984) Long-term mental illness in Canada: an epidemiological perspective on schizophrenia and affective disorders. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 29, 242–246.
Bland, R. C., Parker, J. H. & Orn, H. (1978) Prognosis in schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 72–77.
Bleuler, M. N. (1978) The Schizophrenic Disorders: Long-Term Patient and Family Studies.
New Haven: Yale University Press.
Brockington, I., Roper, A., Edmunds, E., et al (1992) A longitudinal psychopathological schedule. Psychological Medicine, 22, 1035–1043.
Caplan, R., Perdue, S., Tanguay, P. E., et al (1990) Formal thought disorder in childhood onset schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 31, 1103–1114.
Carpenter, W. T. Jr & Kirkpatrick, B. (1988) The heterogeneity of the long-term course of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 14, 645–652.
Castle, D. J., Wessely, S. & Murray, R. M. (1993) Sex and schizophrenia: effects of diagnostic stringency, and associations with premorbid variables. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 658–664.
Cattell, R. B. (1963) The structuring of change by P-technique and incremental R-technique. In Problems of Measuring Change (ed. Harris, C. W.). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Ciompi, L. (1980a) Catamnestic long-term study on the course of life and aging of schizophrenics. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 6, 606.
Ciompi, L. (1980b) The natural history of schizophrenia in the long term. British Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 413.
Ciompi, L. (1984) Is there really a schizophrenia? The long-term course of psychotic phenomena. British Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 636.
Ciompi, L. (1988) Learning from outcome studies. Toward a comprehensive biological-psychosocial understanding of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 1, 373–384.
DeLisi, L. E., Boccio, A. M., Riordan, H., et al (1991) Familial thyroid disease and delayed language development in first admission patients with schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 38, 39–50.
Dunteman, G. H. (1989) Principal components analysis. In Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, Vol. 69 (ed. Lewis-Beck, M. S.), p. 96. Newbury Park: Sage.
Eggers, C. (1978) Course and prognosis of childhood schizophrenia. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 8, 21–36.
Eggers, C. (1989) Schizo-affective psychoses in childhood: a follow-up study. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 19, 327–342.
Endicott, J., Spitzer, R. L., Fleiss, J. L., et al (1976) The global assessment scale: A procedure for measuring overall severity of psychiatric disturbances. Archives of General Psychiatry, 33, 766–771.
Gordon, C. T., Frazier, J. A., McKenna, K., et al (1994) Childood-onset schizophrenia: an NIMH study in progress. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 20, 697–712.
Green, W. H., Padron-Gayol, M., Hardesty, A. S., et al (1992) Schizophrenia with childhood onset: a phenomenological study of 38 cases. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 968–976.
Harding, M. C. (1988) Course types in schizophrenia: an analysis of European and American studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 14, 633–643.
Hollingshead, A. B. (1957) Two-factor Index of Social Position.
New Haven: Yale University Press.
Hollis, C. (1995) Child and adolescent (juvenile onset) schizophrenia: a case control study of premorbid developmental impairments. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 489–495.
Iacono, W. G. & Beiser, M. (1992) Are males more likely than females to develop schizophrenia?
American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 1070–1074.
Jonsson, H. & Nyman, A. K. (1991) Predicting long-term outcome in schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 83, 342–346.
Klimidis, S., Stuart, G. W., Minas, I. H., et al (1993) Positive and negative symptoms in the psychoses. Re-analysis of published SAPS and SANS global ratings. Schizophrenia Research, 9, 11–18.
Kolvin, I. (1971) Studies in the childhood psychoses. I. Diagnostic criteria and classification. British Journal of Psychiatry, 118, 381–384.
Kolvin, I., Ounsted, C., Humphrey, M., et al (1971) Studies in the childhood psychoses. II. The phenomenology of childhood psychoses. British Journal of Psychiatry, 118, 385–395.
Kolvin, I. & Berney, T. P. (1990) Childhood schizophrenia. In Handbook of Studies on Child Psychiatry (eds Tonge, B. J., Burrows, G. D. & Werry, J. S.), pp. 123–135. London: Elsevier Science.
Lewine, R. J. (1988) Gender and schizophrenia. In Handbook of Schizophrenia, Vol. 3 (ed. Nasrallah, H. A.). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Liddle, P. F. (1987) The symptoms of chronic schizophrenia: a reexamination of the positive–negative dichotomy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 145–151.
Mallows, C. L. (1973) Some comments on CPI. Technometrics, 15, 661–675.
Maziade, M., Roy, M. A., Fournier, J. P., et al (1992) Reliability of best-estimate diagnosis in genetic linkage studies of major psychoses: results from the Quebec pedigree studies. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 1674–1686.
Maziade, M., Roy, M. A., Martinez, M., et al (1995) The negative, psychoticism and disorganized dimensions in a familial sample of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder continuity and discontinuity between the two major psychoses. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 1458–1463.
McGlashan, T. H. (1984) The Chestnut Lodge follow-up study. II. Long-term outcome of schizophrenia and the affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 586.
McGlashan, T. H. (1986a) The prediction of outcome in chronic schizophrenia. IV. The Chestnut Lodge follow-up study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 167–176.
McGlashan, T. H. (1986b) Predictors of shorter-, medium-, and longer-term outcome in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 50–55.
McGlashan, T. H., Carpenter, W. T. Jr & Bartko, J. J. (1988) Issues of design and methodology in long-term follow-up studies. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 14, 569–574.
McKenna, K., Gordon, C. T., Lenane, M., et al (1994) Looking for childhood-onset schizophrenia: the first 71 cases screened. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 636–644.
Miller, D. D., Arndt, S. & Andreasen, N. C. (1993) Alogia, attentional impairment, and inappropriate affect: their status in the dimensions of schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 34, 221–226.
Murray, R. M., Ocallaghan, E., Castle, D. J., et al (1992) A neurodevelopmental approach to the classification of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 18, 319–331.
Peralta, V., De Leon, J. & Cuesta, M. J. (1992) Are there more than two syndromes in schizophrenia? A critique of the positive–negative symptom dichotomy. British Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 335–343.
Post, R. M., Roy-Byrne, P. P. & Uhde, T. W. (1988) Graphic representation of the life course of illness in patients with affective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, 844–848.
Ricks, D. F. & Nameche, G. (1966) Symbiosis, sacrifice, and schizophrenia. Mental Hygiene, 50, 541–551.
Ricks, D. F. & Berry, J. C. (1970) Family and symptom patterns that precede schizophrenia. In Life History Research in Psychopathology (eds Roff, M. & Ricks, D. F.), pp. 31–50. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Russell, A. T. (1992) Schizophrenia. In Assessment and Diagnosis of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders: Current Issues and Procedures (eds Hooper, S. R., Hynd, G. W. & Mattison, R. E.), pp. 23–63. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Russell, A. T. (1994) The clinical presentation of childhood-onset schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 20, 631–646.
Russell, A. T., Bott, L. & Sammons, C. (1989) The phenomenology of schizophrenia occurring in childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 399–407.
Sackett, D. L. (1979) Bias in analytic research. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 32, 51–63.
Seeman, M. V. (1986) Current outcome in schizophrenia: women vs men. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 73, 609–617.
Spencer, E. K. & Campbell, M. (1994) Children with schizophrenia: diagnosis, phenomenology and pharmacotherapy. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 20, 713–725.
Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B., Gibbon, M., et al (1992) The structured clinical interview for DSM–III–R (SCID) I: History, rationale and description. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 624–629.
Torrey, E. F., Bowler, A. E., Taylor, E. H., et al (1994a) Are individuals who develop schizophrenia different as children? In Schizophrenia and Manic–Depressive Disorder. The Biological Roots of Mental Illness as Revealed by the Landmark Study of Identical Twins (eds Fuller Torrey, E., Bowler, A. E., Taylor, E. H., et al), pp. 79–115. New York: Basic Books.
Torrey, E. F., Taylor, E. H., Bracha, H. S., et al (1994b) Prenatal origin of schizophrenia in a subgroup of discordant monozygotic twins. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 20, 423–432.
Tsuang, M. T. (1986) Predictors of poor and good outcome in schizophrenia. In Life-Span Research on the Prediction of Psychopathology (eds Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L. & Miller, N. E.), pp. 195–203. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.
Tsuano, M. T., & Dempsey, G. M. (1979) Long-term outcome of major psychoses. II. Schizoaffective disorder compared with schizophrenia, affective disorders, and a surgical control group. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 1302.
Volkmar, F. R., Cohen, D. J., Hoshino, Y., et al (1988) Phenomenology and classification of the childhood psychoses. Psychological Medicine, 18, 191–201.
Watkins, J. M., Asarnow, R. F. & Tanguay, P. E. (1988) Symptom development in childhood onset schizophrenia. Journal of Child Neurology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 29, 865–878.
Weissman, M. M., Merikangas, K. R., John, K., et al (1986) Family-genetic studies of psychiatric disorders. Developing technologies. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 1104–1116.
Werry, J. S. (1992) Child and adolescent (early onset) schizophrenia: a review in light of DSM–III–R. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 22, 181–187.
Werry, J. S., McClellan, J. M. & Chard, L. (1991) Childhood and adolescent schizophrenic, bipolar, and schizoaffective disorders: a clinical and outcome study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 457–465.
Werry, J. S. & McClellan, J. M. (1992) Predicting outcome in child and adolescent (early onset) schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31, 147–150.
Werry, J. S. & Taylor, E. (1994) Schizophrenic and allied disorders. In Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Modern Approaches (eds Rutter, M., Taylor, E. & Herson, L.), pp. 594–615. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.
Westermeyer, J. F. & Harrow, M. (1988) Course and outcome in schizophrenia. In Nosology, Epidemiology and Genetics (eds Tsuang, M. T. & Simpson, J. C.), pp. 205–244. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
World Health Organization (1994) International Classification of Diseases (10th edn) . Geneva: WHO.