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Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression.
Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers’ personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined.
Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL.
Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.
Due to a rapid shrinkage in memory devices, backned of the line process experiences great difficulties, especially Al metallization. Furthermore, there is a continuous demands in low line resistance in order to promote device performances. In this article, Al damascene process is proposed as compared to Al patterning process, which suffers from inherent pattering issue at a fine pitch under 70nm. The most difficulties in the development of Al damascene process were to form a stable and void free Al in fine trench and to obtain scratch and corrosions free Al surface. In this study, 50nm beyond fill was successfully achieved by “bottom up growth” of CVD Al. For the process, CVD Al by using Methylpyrroridine Alane (MPA) precursor was deposited on a stacked film of CVD TiN and PVD TiN as a wetting layer, which was followed by PVD Al and reflow, then the Al surface was polished with colloidal silica based slurry.
In addition, electrical property of Al scheme and W scheme was compared with damascene pattern, along with which we demonstrated that around 36% decrease in parasitic capacitance is achievable by decrease of metal line height from 3500A to 1000A on simulation test implying that device performance could be enhanced.
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