A 17th century B.C. Surgical Papyrus known as “The Edwin Smith Papyrus” was published in facsimile and hieroglyphic transliteration with translation and commentary by James Henry Breasted in 1930. The Papyrus was acquired by Edwin Smith in Luxor, 1862. This document was conceived in the Pyramid Age (3000-2500 B.C.) and remains in material form from the 17th century B.C. It is of importance to the history of Neurology as it contains the earliest mention in oriental literature of (a) the brain and meninges (b) calvarial and cervical vertebral injuries in details of pathology, symptomatology, treatment and prognosis and (c) functional localization in the brain and spine. Most importantly, Papyrus Smith is a statement of the medical ethic of its time.