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The aim of this study was to evaluate whether high-fat (HF) diet intake during puberty can program obesity as well as generate glucose imbalance and hepatic metabolic dysfunctions in adult life. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into two groups: rats fed standard chow (NF) and rats fed a HF from postnatal 30-day-old (PND30) until PND60. Then, both groups were fed a standard chow from PND60 until PND120. Euthanasia and samples collections occurred at PND120. HF animals were overweight (+11%) and had increased adiposity, hyperphagia (+12%), hyperglycaemia (+13%), hyperinsulinemia (+69%), and hypertriglyceridemia (+34%). Plasma glucose levels during intravenous glucose tolerance test (ivGTT) and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test (ipITT) were also higher in the HF group, whereas Kitt was significantly lower (–34%), suggesting reduced insulin sensitivity. In the same sense, HF animals present pancreatic islets hypertrophy and high β-cell mass. HF animals also had a significant increase in blood glucose levels during pyruvate tolerance test, indicating increased gluconeogenesis. Hepatic morphology analyses showed an increase in lipid inclusion in the HF group. Moreover, PEPCK and FAS protein expression were higher in the livers of the HF animals (+79% and + 37%, respectively). In conclusion, HF during puberty causes obese phenotype leading to glucose dyshomeostasis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which can be related to the overexpression of proteins PEPCK and FAS.
Search and rescue teams and Antarctic research groups use protective cold-water anti-exposure suits (AES) when cruising on Zodiacs. Extremity tourniquet (ET) self-application (SA) donned with AESs has not been previously studied. Our study assessed the SA of five commercial ETs (CAT, OMNA, RATS, RMT, and SWAT-T) among fifteen volunteers who donned these suits. Tourniquet‘s SA ability, ease of SA, tolerance, and tourniquet preference were measured. All ETs tested were self-applied to the upper extremity except for the SWAT, which was self-applied with the rest to the lower extremity. SA ease mean values were compared using the Friedman and Durbin-Conover post hoc tests (p < 0.001). Regarding the upper extremity, OMNA achieved the highest score of 8.5 out of 10, while RMT and SWAT received lower scores than other options (p<0.001). For lower extremities, SWAT was found to be inferior to other options (p<0.01). Overall, OMNA was the best performer. The RATS showed significantly lower tolerance than the other groups in a repeated measures ANOVA with a Turkey post hoc test (p<0.01). Additionally, out of the five ETs tested, 60% of subjects preferred OMNA. The study concluded that SA commercial ETs are feasible over cold-water anti-exposure suits in the Antarctic climate.
To identify the patients who are most likely to participate in discussions about palliative care (PC) and advance care planning (ACP), and to determine their preferred timing and approach of discussion.
The study included women aged 18–75 years diagnosed with breast cancer. In the quantitative phase, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, knowledge, decision-making, and stigmas were evaluated. The qualitative phase included questions about patients’ understanding, timing, and method of discussing PC and ACP, which were analyzed by Bardin’s content analysis.
In Phase 1, a total of 115 participants were included, with 53.04% completing both phases and 46.96% declining further participation. Those who completed both phases exhibited higher rates of marriage and educational attainment, while those who declined Phase 2 had a higher prevalence of advanced-stage cancer and palliative treatment. Completion of both phases was associated with a greater knowledge of reality and increased awareness of PC and ACP. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis revealed 5 convergent themes: timing, demystification, patient empowerment, misconception elimination, and open communication. These themes informed the development of a conceptual model that provides a framework for discussing PC and ACP with patients at different stages of cancer diagnosis and treatment, highlighting appropriate and inappropriate approaches and timing.
Significance of results
Early discussion is beneficial, but withholding information or infringing on autonomy should be avoided. The study reveals that married and highly educated individuals tend to be more receptive to these discussions. However, patients with late-stage cancer tend to decline participation. Patients value open communication, demystification of PC, and empowering discussions that eliminate misunderstandings. Efforts should be made to reach patients with limited familiarity, particularly those with late-stage cancer, to increase their receptiveness to enable well-informed decision-making.
Dignity therapy (DT) was developed to help patients at their end of life to reframe and give meaning to their illness process. The DT question protocol focuses on personhood and important aspects of the individual’s life. This study aimed to translate and culturally adapt the Dignity Therapy Question Protocol (DTQP) to Brazilian Portuguese.
This was a descriptive and methodological study, and cross-cultural adaptation process comprised 4 stages: (1) translation and synthesis of English original version protocol into Brazilian Portuguese, (2) back translation, (3) experts committee, and (4) pretest.
The Portuguese version of the DTQP – Protocolo de Perguntas sobre Terapia da Dignidade – demonstrated a content validity index of 1 for all equivalences. The initial sample consisted of 41 participants (9 [21.9%] refused to participate and 1 [2.43%] dropped out). The pretest was applied to 30 (73.1%) participants, 15 of them were female and the mean age was 53.4 years. The final version consisted of 10 questions that were approved by the original authors who affirmed that the DTQP Brazilian Portuguese version maintained the original English characteristics.
Significance of results
The Brazilian cultural adaptation of the DTQP was well understood by patients. It will be very useful in palliative care clinical practice for patients nearing end of life. The adapted version to Brazilian Portuguese will facilitate future studies using the DTQP.
The intrinsic complexity, variety of concepts and numerous ways to quantify landscape heterogeneity (LH) may hamper a better understanding of how its components relate to ecological phenomena. Our study is the first to synthesize understanding of this concept and to provide the state of the art on the subject based on a comprehensive systematic literature review of 661 articles published between 1982 and 2019. Definitions, terminologies and measurements of LH were diverse and conflicting. Most articles (534 out of 661) did not provide any definition for LH, and we found great variation among the studies that did. According to our review, only 10 studies measured the effects of different land-cover types on biotic or abiotic processes (functional LH). The remaining 651 studies measured physical attributes of the landscape without mentioning that different land-cover types may impact biotic and abiotic processes differently (structural LH). The metrics most frequently used to represent LH were the Shannon diversity index and proportion of land-cover type. Most metrics used as proxies of LH also coincided with those used to represent non-heterogeneity metrics, such as fragmentation and connectivity. We identify knowledge gaps, indicate future perspectives and propose guidelines that should be addressed when researching LH.
The Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) recommends a minimal panel to detect high-risk cytogenetics (del17p, t[4;14], t[14;16]) for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). In the Brazilian Public Health System, the use of FISH is currently authorized for rare diseases only, not including MM. In 2021, the Brazilian National Committee for Health Technology Incorporation, with the purpose of broadening the use of FISH to MM patients, requested a review to be undertaken by the Health Technology Assessment Center of University of Campinas’ Teaching Hospital. This study presents the results of a meta-analysis comparing FISH vs CC to the detection of the above-mentioned aberrations in MM patients.
On 25 June 2021, a pre-structured search on four databases (Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane and LILACS) was performed to identify studies comparing FISH and CC results in MM patients for the detection of high-risk cytogenetics (del17p, t[4;14], and t[14;16]) in MM patients’ bone marrow samples. Study selection, risk of bias assessment, data extraction (frequency of positive tests) and quality of evidence assessment were performed by two independent researchers. Conflicts were solved in agreement meetings with a third researcher. Meta-analysis was performed using frequency of positives to obtain Risk Difference (RD), a surrogate measure of the surplus positive tests between FISH and CC.
From a total of 1346 rendered entries, 11 studies were selected. Only observational studies were available. These studies presented an overall high risk of bias (QUADAS-2). A total of 781 patients were assessed (653 evaluated by FISH and 719 by CC). Meta-analysis results showed that, for t(4;14) FISH detected 12 percent more samples (RD:0.12 [95% confidence interval (CI):0.06-0.19]). For t(14;16), FISH detected 0.42 percent more samples (RD:0.00 [95%CI:-0.01-0.02]). And for del17p, FISH detected 1.6 percent more samples (RD:0.12 [95%CI:0.04-0.20]).
FISH appears to be more effective than CC on the detection of t(4;414) and del17p aberrations, and can be a useful tool in hematology practice. The results of t(14;16) presented non-superiority, probably due to the low frequency of this aberration.
Oxidative stress is an undesirable effect of in vitro culture, which requires antioxidant supplementation. This study investigated the analogue of resveratrol (RA33) as an alternative to resveratrol, an antioxidant molecule, for the in vitro culture of in vitro-fertilized bovine embryos. The effect of different concentrations of RA33 on embryo development was evaluated and a comparison between RA33 and resveratrol was performed. The cleavage rate was higher (P < 0.05) with 2.5 μM (69.0 ± 4.4%) than at 0, 0.1 or 0.5 μM RA33 (62.1 ± 2.0%, 60.7 ± 5.9% and 56.7 ± 5.8%, respectively). The blastocyst rates on days 7 and 8 post-fertilization with 2.5 μM RA33 (19.4 ± 3.3% and 24.6 ± 3.3%, respectively) were higher (P < 0.05) than for 0 μM (12.4 ± 2.5% and 15.2±2.5%, respectively). When 2.5 μM RA33 was compared with 0.5 μM resveratrol, similar (P > 0.05) cleavage and blastocyst rates were found between them, but the cleavage rate was higher (P < 0.05) in the control (80.8 ± 3.4%) than for the resveratrol treatment (76.4 ± 3.6%). The numbers of apoptotic cells and the apoptotic index were lower (P < 0.05) with RA33 (6.5 ± 0.6 cells and 6.4 ± 0.7%, respectively) and resveratrol (5 ± 0.8 cells and 5.5 ± 1.0%, respectively) than in the control group (9.8 ± 1.2 cells and 8.9 ± 1.1%, respectively). In conclusion, RA33 can enhance the preimplantation development of in vitro-fertilized bovine embryos and be an alternative to resveratrol in embryo culture medium.
This work aimed to investigate the effects of early progeny exposure to methylglyoxal (MG), programming for metabolic dysfunction and diabetes-like complications later in life. At delivery (PN1), the animals were separated into two groups: control group (CO), treated with saline, and MG group, treated with MG (20 mg/kg of BW; i.p.) during the first 2 weeks of the lactation period. In vivo experiments and tissue collection were done at PN90. Early MG exposure decreased body weight, adipose tissue, liver and kidney weight at adulthood. On the other hand, MG group showed increased relative food intake, blood fructosamine, blood insulin and HOMA-IR, which is correlated with insulin resistance. Besides, MG-treated animals presented dyslipidaemia, increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Likewise, MG group showed steatosis and perivascular fibrosis in the liver, pancreatic islet hypertrophy, increased glomerular area and pericapsular fibrosis, but reduced capsular space. This study shows that early postnatal exposure to MG induces oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis markers in pancreas, liver and kidney, which are related to metabolic dysfunction features. Thus, nutritional disruptors during lactation period may be an important risk factor for metabolic alterations at adulthood.
The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), can remain inside dry and deformed reproductive structures of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus (Malvaceae), known as dry bolls, during the cotton fallow to infest the next cotton crop. In this study, the influence of cotton cultivars and sowing densities on the formation of dry bolls was evaluated. In addition, dry bolls were dissected and internal structures that were related to boll weevil development were estimated. Finally, the presence and survival of boll weevils inside dry bolls were evaluated. The results indicate that the number of dry bolls, empty pupal cells, and emergence holes was influenced by cultivar and not by sowing density. Almost one-quarter (22.53%) of adult boll weevils examined was found alive inside the dry bolls after 10 weeks, which is slightly longer than the duration of cotton fallow in Brazil’s main cotton-producing regions. Therefore, remaining inside the dry bolls is an important survival strategy for boll weevils during the cotton fallow period, and cotton cultivars with a greater propensity for the formation of dry bolls might favour survival of the pest during this period.
Maternal obesity increases the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYBG) is effective for achieving weight loss and ameliorates NAFLD. To determine whether these benefits are maintained after pregnancy and/or lactation, and whether they modulate hepatic morphofunction in the next generation, we evaluated hepatic lipid metabolism in Western diet (WD)-obese female rats that underwent RYGB and in their F1 offspring at adulthood. Female Wistar rats consumed a WD from 21 to 130 days of age, before being submitted to RYGB (WD-RYGB-F0) or SHAM (WD-SHAM-F0) operations. After 5 weeks, these females were mated with control male breeders, and the male and female F1 offspring were identified as WD-RYGB-F1 and WD-SHAM-F1. WD-RYGB-F0 dams exhibited lower serum lipids levels, but severe hepatic steatosis and pathological features of advanced liver injury. The hepatic proteins involved in lipogenesis were reduced in WD-RYGB-F0, as were the genes related to β-oxidation and bile acids (BAs). Although the female and male WD-RYGB-F1 groups did not exhibit hepatic steatosis, the livers of female WD-RYGB-F1 demonstrated higher amounts of lipogenic genes and proteins, while male WD-RYGB-F1 presented a similar downregulation of lipogenic factors to that seen in WD-RYGB-F0 dams. In contrast, maternal and offspring groups of both sexes displayed reductions in the expressions of genes involved in BAs physiology and gluconeogenesis. As such, RYGB aggravates NAFLD after pregnancy and lactation and induces a gender-dependent differential expression of the hepatic lipogenesis pathway in offspring, indicating that female WD-RYGB-F1 may be an increased risk of developing NAFLD.
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is an exotic invasive plant species in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest that causes changes in the environment through the release of allelopathic substances and has high fruit production. We aimed to understand the potential effects of the jackfruit on the non-volant small mammal assemblage in an area protected by law, in the municipality of Cariacica – Espírito Santo, south-eastern Brazil. We sampled the small mammals assemblage using live traps in 18 sites, eight with jackfruit and 10 without. We ordinated the assemblage and tested possible differences in species richness and abundance according to the jackfruit density. We recorded 31 species of non-volant small mammals, with 13 species endemic to the Atlantic Forest. Jackfruit species can affect both positively and negatively the studied assemblage of non-volant small mammals. For species with a frugivory habit, jackfruit has a positive effect favouring these species. On the other hand, for insectivorous species, jackfruit represents an impact inhibiting the presence of these species in an area with high jackfruit density. The results presented are the first step in understanding the effect of this invasive species on a small mammals assemblage and initiating a monitoring of these species in areas affected by jackfruits. Furthermore, management of jackfruits in this protected area is required.
Pancreatic eurytrematosis (PE) is an under diagnosed and neglected parasitosis in goats and sheep in the Americas. Clinical and pathological features of PE are not well defined in small ruminants worldwide. Natural cases of PE in small ruminants were detected in the Federal District, Brazil. A survey of necropsy records, including epidemiological and clinicopathological data, in goats and sheep was conducted. Most cases of PE occurred during the rainy season in adult females, with an incidence of 12.9% in goats and 0.8% in sheep. Clinical signs varied from asymptomatic infections to anorexia, lethargy, weakness, marked weight loss and death in some goats. Overall, most cases of PE in goats and sheep were incidental necropsy findings with minor pancreatic lesions. Three goats, however, showed severe chronic pancreatitis, dilation of major pancreatic ducts with numerous trematodes present and marked abdominal fat necrosis. Morphological and molecular characterization of flukes detected Eurytrema coelomaticum. Our findings shed light on the prevalence of E. coelomaticum infections in small ruminants in the region and highlight the possibility of severe and lethal cases in goats. PE must be further investigated in small ruminant populations in relevant livestock production regions of the Americas.
Intermittent food restriction (IFR) is used mainly for weight loss; however, its effects on adipose tissue are not known when alternating with an obesogenic diet. To demonstrate its effects on morphological dynamics of fat deposits, female Wistar rats were distributed into groups: standard control (ST-C), with commercial diet; DIO control (DIO-C), with a diet that induces obesity (DIO) during the first and last 15 d, replaced by a standard diet for thirty intermediate days; standard restricted (ST-R), with standard diet during the first and last 15 d, with six cycles of IFR at 50 % of ST-C; and DIO restricted (DIO-R), in DIO during the first and last 15 d, with six cycles of IFR at 50 % of DIO-C. At 105 d of life, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) deposits were collected, weighed and histology performed. The DIO-R group showed higher total food intake (DIO-R 10 768·0 (SEM 357·52) kJ/g v. DIO-C 8868·6 (SEM 249·25) kJ/g, P < 0·0001), energy efficiency during RAI (DIO-R 2·26 (SEM 0·05) g/kJ v. DIO-C 0·70 (SEM 0·03) g/kJ, P < 0·0001) and WAT (DIO-R 5·65 (SEM 0·30) g/100 g v. DIO-C 4·56 (SEM 0·30) g/100 g) than their respective control. Furthermore, IFR groups presented hypertrophy of WAT and BAT, as well as fibrosis in BAT. Thus, IFR can establish prospective resistance to weight loss by favouring changes in adipose tissue morphology, increased energy intake and efficiency. Finally, the DIO diet before and after IFR aggravates the damages caused by the restriction.
The present study aimed to evaluate the inflammatory response, oxidative status and fatty acid deposition in reproductive tissues of cats supplemented with the dried microalgae Schizochytrium spp. (Thraustochytriaceae) as a DHA source. Thirty-seven cats (males, n 21; females, n 16; 11·5 (sd 0·5) months of age) were divided by sex into five groups. Treatment diets contained algae biomass at 4·0, 8·0, 12·0 or 16·0 g/kg replacing poultry fat (n-6 source). Cats were fed the respective diet for 62 d and neutered on day 58. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment (day 1), before neutering (day 58) and 4 d after surgery (day 62) for analysis of inflammation and oxidative markers. Acute-phase protein levels were altered (P < 0·01) in the postoperative period, without any treatment effect (P > 0·05). PGE2 concentrations after surgery were reduced linearly (R2 0·8706; P = 0·002) with microalgal inclusion. Blood platelet count was reduced (P = 0·001) after the surgery regardless treatment, but it was higher in the DHA group compared with control (P < 0·001). The DHA deposition (testicles, R2 0·846; ovaries, R2 0·869) and the n-6:n-3 ratio (testicles, R2 0·859; ovaries, R2 0·955) in gonads had a pattern which fitted a quadratic model. DHA from Schizochytrium spp. modifies PGE2 response after the surgery in cats. The physiological roles of the DHA in the reproduction of cats were not investigated, but its gonadal deposition after supplementation was observed.
Background:Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. Hospital infections caused by this bacteria, especially in intensive care centers, are concerning for the health system, given that the microorganism is multidrug resistant to most antimicrobials available. Objective: Therefore, the present study is built from an analysis of the variables related to nosocomial infections caused by S. maltophilia in hospitals in Brazil, to display points of major concern. Methods: We used the data collected by the Infection Prevention and Control Service to clarify the incidence rate of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Brazilian hospitals as well as the gross lethality of these infections and the profiles of infected patients. We collected and analyzed epidemiological data from 10 hospitals in Brazil for the period July 2014 to June 2019 according to the CDC NHSN protocol. Results: In 5 years, 93 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections were diagnosed in the hospitals analyzed. Overall, 61 occurred in men (66%) and 32 occurred in women (34%). Furthermore, 47 cases (51%) occurred in adult ICUs; 19 cases (20%) followed zascular surgery; 9 (10%) cases occurred in the neonatal ICU; 7 (8%) cases were from the medical clinic; and 11 (12%) were from other clinics. The incidence rate was 1.2 cases for 10,000 hospitalizations, ranging from 0.0 to 2.8 (Fig. 1). Patients’ ages ranged from 0 to 90 years, with a mean of 55 years (SD, 26 years) and a median of 64 years. Time between admission and diagnosis of infection was 1 to 102 days, with a mean of 24 days (SD, 21 days) and a median of 17 days. The gross lethality for S. maltophilia infection was 43 of 93 (46%) (95% CI, 35.8%–56.9%). The frequencies of specific infections were as follows (Fig. 2): pneumonia, 26 (28%); tracheobronchitism, 22 (24%); primary bloodstream infection, 18 (19%); skin and soft-tissue infection, 13 (14%); local infection, 7 (8%); vascular access infection, 3 (3%); urinary tract infection, 2 (2%); gastrointestinal infection, 1 (1%); and eye, nose, throat, and mouth infections, 1 (1%). Conclusions:Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection is a rare and highly lethal event that usually occurs after 2 weeks of hospitalization. The most affected region is the respiratory tract, with a higher incidence in patients aged >60 years or in the ICU. Early and accurate investigations of multiresistant microorganisms in a hospital setting are needed to reduce patient morbidity and mortality.
Although the literature recognizes the participation of patients in medical decisions as an important indicator of quality, there is a lack of consensus regarding the influence of advance directives (ADs) on reducing aggressive measures during end-of-life care involving cancer patients.
A systematic review was conducted to analyze the influence of ADs on reducing aggressive end-of-life care measures for cancer patients.
We searched the Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Lilacs databases for studies published until March 2018 using the following keywords, without language restrictions: “advance directives,” “living wills,” “terminal care,” “palliative care,” “hospice care,” and “neoplasms.” Article quality was assessed using study quality assessment tools from the Department of Health and Human Services (NHLBI).
A total of 1,489 studies were identified; 7 met the inclusion criteria. The studies were recently published (after 2014, 71.4%). Patients with ADs were more likely to die at the site of choice (n = 3) and received less chemotherapy in the last 30 days (n = 1). ADs had no impact on intensive care unit admission (n = 1) or hospitalization (n = 1). One study found an association between ADs and referral to palliative care, but other did not find the same result.
Significance of results
Of the seven articles found, four demonstrated effects of ADs on the reduction in aggressive measures at the end of life of cancer patients. Heterogeneity regarding study design and results and poor methodological quality are challenges when drawing conclusions.
Nutritional disorders during the perinatal period cause cardiometabolic dysfunction, which is observable in the early overfeeding (EO) experimental model. Therefore, severe caloric restriction has the potential of affecting homeostasis through the same epigenetic mechanisms, and its effects need elucidation. This work aims to determine the impact of food restriction (FR) during puberty in early overfed obese and non-obese animals in adult life. Three days after delivery (PN3), Wistar rats were separated into two groups: normal litter (NL; 9 pups) and small litter (SL; 3 pups). At PN30, some offspring were subjected to FR (50%) until PN60, or maintained with free access to standard chow. NL and SL animals submitted to food restriction (NLFR and SLFR groups) were kept in recovery with free access to standard chow from PN60 until PN120. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. At PN120 cardiovascular parameters were analyzed and the animals were euthanized for sample collection. SLNF and SLFR offspring were overweight and had increased adiposity. Differences in blood pressure were observed only between obese and non-obese animals. Obese and FR animals have cardiac remodeling showing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the presence of interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. FR animals also show increased expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors and of total ERK and p-ERK. The present study showed that EO leads to the obese phenotype and cardiovascular disruptions. Interestingly, we demonstrated that severe FR during puberty leads to cardiac remodeling.
Changes in cardiac autonomic regulation, expressed by increased sympathetic activity and decreased heart rate variability, have an important relationship with the onset of lethal cardiac phenomena. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the cardiac autonomic behaviour in young people according to their level of physical activity. Through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, 55 healthy young non-smokers with no history of previous diseases and whose parents did not suffer from metabolic syndrome were assessed and divided into groups: sedentary (n=12), insufficiently active (n=16), active (n=14), and very active (n=13). We collected respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest, and body mass index. Subjects remained supine at rest, and without mental stress for 15 minutes in a controlled environment. Using a cardiofrequency meter (Polar® RS800CX), data were analysed in the time domain, frequency domain, and detrended fluctuation analysis. For the sedentary group, the mean RR and rMSSD were significantly lower, and the insufficiently active group showed higher means, but significantly only for rMSSD. The insufficiently active group showed in the detrended fluctuation analysis that α2 was significantly lower compared with the sedentary, active, and very active groups. We conclude that young, healthy, sedentary individuals present an increased heart rate and that insufficiently active individuals present a decreased fractal correlation and increased parasympathetic activity.
To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Shame and Stigma Scale (SSS) in a sample of patients with head and neck cancers (HNC).
This is a validation study carried out in a Brazilian cancer hospital. Patients over 18 years old who knew about their HNC diagnosis were consecutively recruited, answering the SSS, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (General and Head and Neck supplement) questionnaire, and the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire. Internal consistency, test-retest procedure, convergent validity, and responsiveness analysis were the psychometric properties evaluated.
A total of 122 HNC patients were included. The SSS showed appropriate internal consistency (alphas ranging from 0.71 to 0.86), test-retest reliability (higher than 0.92 with exception of the “Regret domain”), and convergent validity. The responsiveness analysis with 38 patients was able to discriminate the scores before and after prosthetic procedures.
Significance of the Results
The Brazilian Portuguese version of the SSS may be considered a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of Brazilian patients with HNC. Future SSS validation studies are welcome in other developing countries in order to make cancer health providers aware of these negative feelings in their HNC patients.