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This work aimed to investigate the effects of early progeny exposure to methylglyoxal (MG), programming for metabolic dysfunction and diabetes-like complications later in life. At delivery (PN1), the animals were separated into two groups: control group (CO), treated with saline, and MG group, treated with MG (20 mg/kg of BW; i.p.) during the first 2 weeks of the lactation period. In vivo experiments and tissue collection were done at PN90. Early MG exposure decreased body weight, adipose tissue, liver and kidney weight at adulthood. On the other hand, MG group showed increased relative food intake, blood fructosamine, blood insulin and HOMA-IR, which is correlated with insulin resistance. Besides, MG-treated animals presented dyslipidaemia, increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Likewise, MG group showed steatosis and perivascular fibrosis in the liver, pancreatic islet hypertrophy, increased glomerular area and pericapsular fibrosis, but reduced capsular space. This study shows that early postnatal exposure to MG induces oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis markers in pancreas, liver and kidney, which are related to metabolic dysfunction features. Thus, nutritional disruptors during lactation period may be an important risk factor for metabolic alterations at adulthood.
The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), can remain inside dry and deformed reproductive structures of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum Linnaeus (Malvaceae), known as dry bolls, during the cotton fallow to infest the next cotton crop. In this study, the influence of cotton cultivars and sowing densities on the formation of dry bolls was evaluated. In addition, dry bolls were dissected and internal structures that were related to boll weevil development were estimated. Finally, the presence and survival of boll weevils inside dry bolls were evaluated. The results indicate that the number of dry bolls, empty pupal cells, and emergence holes was influenced by cultivar and not by sowing density. Almost one-quarter (22.53%) of adult boll weevils examined was found alive inside the dry bolls after 10 weeks, which is slightly longer than the duration of cotton fallow in Brazil’s main cotton-producing regions. Therefore, remaining inside the dry bolls is an important survival strategy for boll weevils during the cotton fallow period, and cotton cultivars with a greater propensity for the formation of dry bolls might favour survival of the pest during this period.
Maternal obesity increases the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYBG) is effective for achieving weight loss and ameliorates NAFLD. To determine whether these benefits are maintained after pregnancy and/or lactation, and whether they modulate hepatic morphofunction in the next generation, we evaluated hepatic lipid metabolism in Western diet (WD)-obese female rats that underwent RYGB and in their F1 offspring at adulthood. Female Wistar rats consumed a WD from 21 to 130 days of age, before being submitted to RYGB (WD-RYGB-F0) or SHAM (WD-SHAM-F0) operations. After 5 weeks, these females were mated with control male breeders, and the male and female F1 offspring were identified as WD-RYGB-F1 and WD-SHAM-F1. WD-RYGB-F0 dams exhibited lower serum lipids levels, but severe hepatic steatosis and pathological features of advanced liver injury. The hepatic proteins involved in lipogenesis were reduced in WD-RYGB-F0, as were the genes related to β-oxidation and bile acids (BAs). Although the female and male WD-RYGB-F1 groups did not exhibit hepatic steatosis, the livers of female WD-RYGB-F1 demonstrated higher amounts of lipogenic genes and proteins, while male WD-RYGB-F1 presented a similar downregulation of lipogenic factors to that seen in WD-RYGB-F0 dams. In contrast, maternal and offspring groups of both sexes displayed reductions in the expressions of genes involved in BAs physiology and gluconeogenesis. As such, RYGB aggravates NAFLD after pregnancy and lactation and induces a gender-dependent differential expression of the hepatic lipogenesis pathway in offspring, indicating that female WD-RYGB-F1 may be an increased risk of developing NAFLD.
Pancreatic eurytrematosis (PE) is an under diagnosed and neglected parasitosis in goats and sheep in the Americas. Clinical and pathological features of PE are not well defined in small ruminants worldwide. Natural cases of PE in small ruminants were detected in the Federal District, Brazil. A survey of necropsy records, including epidemiological and clinicopathological data, in goats and sheep was conducted. Most cases of PE occurred during the rainy season in adult females, with an incidence of 12.9% in goats and 0.8% in sheep. Clinical signs varied from asymptomatic infections to anorexia, lethargy, weakness, marked weight loss and death in some goats. Overall, most cases of PE in goats and sheep were incidental necropsy findings with minor pancreatic lesions. Three goats, however, showed severe chronic pancreatitis, dilation of major pancreatic ducts with numerous trematodes present and marked abdominal fat necrosis. Morphological and molecular characterization of flukes detected Eurytrema coelomaticum. Our findings shed light on the prevalence of E. coelomaticum infections in small ruminants in the region and highlight the possibility of severe and lethal cases in goats. PE must be further investigated in small ruminant populations in relevant livestock production regions of the Americas.
Intermittent food restriction (IFR) is used mainly for weight loss; however, its effects on adipose tissue are not known when alternating with an obesogenic diet. To demonstrate its effects on morphological dynamics of fat deposits, female Wistar rats were distributed into groups: standard control (ST-C), with commercial diet; DIO control (DIO-C), with a diet that induces obesity (DIO) during the first and last 15 d, replaced by a standard diet for thirty intermediate days; standard restricted (ST-R), with standard diet during the first and last 15 d, with six cycles of IFR at 50 % of ST-C; and DIO restricted (DIO-R), in DIO during the first and last 15 d, with six cycles of IFR at 50 % of DIO-C. At 105 d of life, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) deposits were collected, weighed and histology performed. The DIO-R group showed higher total food intake (DIO-R 10 768·0 (SEM 357·52) kJ/g v. DIO-C 8868·6 (SEM 249·25) kJ/g, P < 0·0001), energy efficiency during RAI (DIO-R 2·26 (SEM 0·05) g/kJ v. DIO-C 0·70 (SEM 0·03) g/kJ, P < 0·0001) and WAT (DIO-R 5·65 (SEM 0·30) g/100 g v. DIO-C 4·56 (SEM 0·30) g/100 g) than their respective control. Furthermore, IFR groups presented hypertrophy of WAT and BAT, as well as fibrosis in BAT. Thus, IFR can establish prospective resistance to weight loss by favouring changes in adipose tissue morphology, increased energy intake and efficiency. Finally, the DIO diet before and after IFR aggravates the damages caused by the restriction.
The present study aimed to evaluate the inflammatory response, oxidative status and fatty acid deposition in reproductive tissues of cats supplemented with the dried microalgae Schizochytrium spp. (Thraustochytriaceae) as a DHA source. Thirty-seven cats (males, n 21; females, n 16; 11·5 (sd 0·5) months of age) were divided by sex into five groups. Treatment diets contained algae biomass at 4·0, 8·0, 12·0 or 16·0 g/kg replacing poultry fat (n-6 source). Cats were fed the respective diet for 62 d and neutered on day 58. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment (day 1), before neutering (day 58) and 4 d after surgery (day 62) for analysis of inflammation and oxidative markers. Acute-phase protein levels were altered (P < 0·01) in the postoperative period, without any treatment effect (P > 0·05). PGE2 concentrations after surgery were reduced linearly (R2 0·8706; P = 0·002) with microalgal inclusion. Blood platelet count was reduced (P = 0·001) after the surgery regardless treatment, but it was higher in the DHA group compared with control (P < 0·001). The DHA deposition (testicles, R2 0·846; ovaries, R2 0·869) and the n-6:n-3 ratio (testicles, R2 0·859; ovaries, R2 0·955) in gonads had a pattern which fitted a quadratic model. DHA from Schizochytrium spp. modifies PGE2 response after the surgery in cats. The physiological roles of the DHA in the reproduction of cats were not investigated, but its gonadal deposition after supplementation was observed.
Background:Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging pathogen responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates. Hospital infections caused by this bacteria, especially in intensive care centers, are concerning for the health system, given that the microorganism is multidrug resistant to most antimicrobials available. Objective: Therefore, the present study is built from an analysis of the variables related to nosocomial infections caused by S. maltophilia in hospitals in Brazil, to display points of major concern. Methods: We used the data collected by the Infection Prevention and Control Service to clarify the incidence rate of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in Brazilian hospitals as well as the gross lethality of these infections and the profiles of infected patients. We collected and analyzed epidemiological data from 10 hospitals in Brazil for the period July 2014 to June 2019 according to the CDC NHSN protocol. Results: In 5 years, 93 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections were diagnosed in the hospitals analyzed. Overall, 61 occurred in men (66%) and 32 occurred in women (34%). Furthermore, 47 cases (51%) occurred in adult ICUs; 19 cases (20%) followed zascular surgery; 9 (10%) cases occurred in the neonatal ICU; 7 (8%) cases were from the medical clinic; and 11 (12%) were from other clinics. The incidence rate was 1.2 cases for 10,000 hospitalizations, ranging from 0.0 to 2.8 (Fig. 1). Patients’ ages ranged from 0 to 90 years, with a mean of 55 years (SD, 26 years) and a median of 64 years. Time between admission and diagnosis of infection was 1 to 102 days, with a mean of 24 days (SD, 21 days) and a median of 17 days. The gross lethality for S. maltophilia infection was 43 of 93 (46%) (95% CI, 35.8%–56.9%). The frequencies of specific infections were as follows (Fig. 2): pneumonia, 26 (28%); tracheobronchitism, 22 (24%); primary bloodstream infection, 18 (19%); skin and soft-tissue infection, 13 (14%); local infection, 7 (8%); vascular access infection, 3 (3%); urinary tract infection, 2 (2%); gastrointestinal infection, 1 (1%); and eye, nose, throat, and mouth infections, 1 (1%). Conclusions:Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection is a rare and highly lethal event that usually occurs after 2 weeks of hospitalization. The most affected region is the respiratory tract, with a higher incidence in patients aged >60 years or in the ICU. Early and accurate investigations of multiresistant microorganisms in a hospital setting are needed to reduce patient morbidity and mortality.
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is an exotic invasive plant species in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest that causes changes in the environment through the release of allelopathic substances and has high fruit production. We aimed to understand the potential effects of the jackfruit on the non-volant small mammal assemblage in an area protected by law, in the municipality of Cariacica – Espírito Santo, south-eastern Brazil. We sampled the small mammals assemblage using live traps in 18 sites, eight with jackfruit and 10 without. We ordinated the assemblage and tested possible differences in species richness and abundance according to the jackfruit density. We recorded 31 species of non-volant small mammals, with 13 species endemic to the Atlantic Forest. Jackfruit species can affect both positively and negatively the studied assemblage of non-volant small mammals. For species with a frugivory habit, jackfruit has a positive effect favouring these species. On the other hand, for insectivorous species, jackfruit represents an impact inhibiting the presence of these species in an area with high jackfruit density. The results presented are the first step in understanding the effect of this invasive species on a small mammals assemblage and initiating a monitoring of these species in areas affected by jackfruits. Furthermore, management of jackfruits in this protected area is required.
Although the literature recognizes the participation of patients in medical decisions as an important indicator of quality, there is a lack of consensus regarding the influence of advance directives (ADs) on reducing aggressive measures during end-of-life care involving cancer patients.
A systematic review was conducted to analyze the influence of ADs on reducing aggressive end-of-life care measures for cancer patients.
We searched the Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Lilacs databases for studies published until March 2018 using the following keywords, without language restrictions: “advance directives,” “living wills,” “terminal care,” “palliative care,” “hospice care,” and “neoplasms.” Article quality was assessed using study quality assessment tools from the Department of Health and Human Services (NHLBI).
A total of 1,489 studies were identified; 7 met the inclusion criteria. The studies were recently published (after 2014, 71.4%). Patients with ADs were more likely to die at the site of choice (n = 3) and received less chemotherapy in the last 30 days (n = 1). ADs had no impact on intensive care unit admission (n = 1) or hospitalization (n = 1). One study found an association between ADs and referral to palliative care, but other did not find the same result.
Significance of results
Of the seven articles found, four demonstrated effects of ADs on the reduction in aggressive measures at the end of life of cancer patients. Heterogeneity regarding study design and results and poor methodological quality are challenges when drawing conclusions.
Nutritional disorders during the perinatal period cause cardiometabolic dysfunction, which is observable in the early overfeeding (EO) experimental model. Therefore, severe caloric restriction has the potential of affecting homeostasis through the same epigenetic mechanisms, and its effects need elucidation. This work aims to determine the impact of food restriction (FR) during puberty in early overfed obese and non-obese animals in adult life. Three days after delivery (PN3), Wistar rats were separated into two groups: normal litter (NL; 9 pups) and small litter (SL; 3 pups). At PN30, some offspring were subjected to FR (50%) until PN60, or maintained with free access to standard chow. NL and SL animals submitted to food restriction (NLFR and SLFR groups) were kept in recovery with free access to standard chow from PN60 until PN120. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experimental period. At PN120 cardiovascular parameters were analyzed and the animals were euthanized for sample collection. SLNF and SLFR offspring were overweight and had increased adiposity. Differences in blood pressure were observed only between obese and non-obese animals. Obese and FR animals have cardiac remodeling showing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the presence of interstitial and perivascular fibrosis. FR animals also show increased expression of AT1 and AT2 receptors and of total ERK and p-ERK. The present study showed that EO leads to the obese phenotype and cardiovascular disruptions. Interestingly, we demonstrated that severe FR during puberty leads to cardiac remodeling.
Changes in cardiac autonomic regulation, expressed by increased sympathetic activity and decreased heart rate variability, have an important relationship with the onset of lethal cardiac phenomena. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the cardiac autonomic behaviour in young people according to their level of physical activity. Through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, 55 healthy young non-smokers with no history of previous diseases and whose parents did not suffer from metabolic syndrome were assessed and divided into groups: sedentary (n=12), insufficiently active (n=16), active (n=14), and very active (n=13). We collected respiratory rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure at rest, and body mass index. Subjects remained supine at rest, and without mental stress for 15 minutes in a controlled environment. Using a cardiofrequency meter (Polar® RS800CX), data were analysed in the time domain, frequency domain, and detrended fluctuation analysis. For the sedentary group, the mean RR and rMSSD were significantly lower, and the insufficiently active group showed higher means, but significantly only for rMSSD. The insufficiently active group showed in the detrended fluctuation analysis that α2 was significantly lower compared with the sedentary, active, and very active groups. We conclude that young, healthy, sedentary individuals present an increased heart rate and that insufficiently active individuals present a decreased fractal correlation and increased parasympathetic activity.
To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Shame and Stigma Scale (SSS) in a sample of patients with head and neck cancers (HNC).
This is a validation study carried out in a Brazilian cancer hospital. Patients over 18 years old who knew about their HNC diagnosis were consecutively recruited, answering the SSS, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (General and Head and Neck supplement) questionnaire, and the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire. Internal consistency, test-retest procedure, convergent validity, and responsiveness analysis were the psychometric properties evaluated.
A total of 122 HNC patients were included. The SSS showed appropriate internal consistency (alphas ranging from 0.71 to 0.86), test-retest reliability (higher than 0.92 with exception of the “Regret domain”), and convergent validity. The responsiveness analysis with 38 patients was able to discriminate the scores before and after prosthetic procedures.
Significance of the Results
The Brazilian Portuguese version of the SSS may be considered a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of Brazilian patients with HNC. Future SSS validation studies are welcome in other developing countries in order to make cancer health providers aware of these negative feelings in their HNC patients.
The objectives were to develop an effective protocol for transfection of ovine secondary follicles and to assess the effect of attenuating aquaporin 3 (AQP3) using a small interfering RNA (siRNA-AQP3) on antrum formation and follicular growth in vitro. Various combinations of Lipofectamine® volumes (0.5, 0.75 or 1.0 µl), fluorescent oligonucleotide (BLOCK-iT ™) concentrations (3.18, 27.12 or 36.16 nM) and exposure times (12, 14, 16, 18 or 20 h) were tested. The BLOCK-iT™ was replaced by siRNA-AQP3 in the transfection complex. Ovine secondary follicles were isolated and cultured in vitro for 6 days using standard protocols. Follicles were transfected on day 0 or 3 or on both days (0 and 3) and then cultured for an additional 3 or 6 days. As revealed by the fluorescence signal, the Lipofectamine®/BLOCK-iT™ complex (0.75 µl + 27.12 nM by 12 h of incubation) crossed the basement membrane and granulosa cell and reached the oocytes. In general, the rate of intact follicles was higher and the rate of antrum formation was lower in transfected follicles compared with control follicles. In conclusion, ovine secondary follicles can be successfully transfected during in vitro culture, and siRNA-mediated attenuation of AQP3 gene reduced antrum formation of secondary follicles.
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans, yet its dietary intake is low, mostly due to the low bioavailability in soils and therefore in edible plant tissues. To overcome Se deficiency, the breeding approach (i.e., genetic biofortification), namely in rice, is largely dependent on available Se pools. To ensure the success of genetic biofortification with Se, agronomic biofortification can be accomplished through foliar Se application. Considering this background, the main hypothesis of this work was centered in the foliar application of Se to attain agronomic biofortification of rice crops. This study also aimed to assess the full potential for increasing grain Se concentrations during rice filling, as well as the types of nutrients deposition. An experimental design applying two foliar fertilizers (sodium selenite and sodium selenate) was developed. As test systems, four rice genotypes (Ariete, Albatros, OP1105 and OP1109) were used and the kinetics of micro- and macro-nutrients accumulation and deposition were assessed. Biofortification was performed in field trials for two years with foliar fertilization ranging between 0 and 300 g Se ha−1. At the end of the plant cycle, selenite applications triggered 427- to 884-fold increases in grain Se concentrations among rice genotypes (Albatros > OP1105 > OP1109 > Ariete). The application of selenate also prompted 128- to 347-fold increases in grain Se concentrations in rice crops (Albatros > OP1105 > Ariete > OP1109). Regardless of the foliar fertilizer applied, Se deposition among genotypes occurred throughout the grain without relevant inhibitory effects on yields. In each genotype, micro and macronutrients varied among crop tissues.
The aim of this study was to describe the effect of temperature on the fertilization, early developmental stages, and survival rate of two Neotropical catfishes Pimelodus maculatus and Pseudopimelodus mangurus. After fertilization, the eggs were incubated at 22°C, 26°C, and 30°C, which resulted in fertilization rates of 96.95 ± 1.79%, 98.74 ± 0.76%, and 98.44 ± 0.19% for P. maculatus and 96.10 ± 1.58%, 98.00 ± 0.63%, and 94.60 ± 2.09% for P. mangurus, respectively. For P. maculatus, hatching occurred after 22 h 30 min post-fertilization at 22°C, 16 h 30 min at 26°C, and 11 h 20 min at 30°C, and the hatching rates were 43.87 ± 7,46%, 57.57 ± 17.49%, and 53.63 ± 16.27%, respectively. For P. mangurus, hatching occurred after 28 h 30 min post-fertilization at 22°C and 17 h 30 min at 26°C with respective hatching rates of 45.4 ± 21.02% and 68.1 ± 12.67%. For this species, all embryos incubated at 30°C died before hatching. Additionally, for P. maculatus, the larvae from the lower (22°C) and higher temperatures (30°C) presented increased abnormality rates, as observed in the head, tail and yolk regions. The lowest abnormality rate was detected at 26°C, which was considered the optimal incubation temperature for both species. The developed protocol enables the manipulation of embryonic development, which is important for the application of reproductive biotechniques, including chimerism and chromosome-set manipulation. The data obtained here are also important for the surrogate propagation of this species as P. mangurus was recently categorized as an endangered fish species.
This article presents innovative work undertaken to evaluate the auxetic composite materials developed using weft-knitted fabrics with negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) produced from high-tenacity filaments of para-aramid (p-AR) and polyamide. The aim of this study is to develop polymeric composite materials reinforced with auxetic knitted fabrics and to evaluate the degree of transference of the auxetic behavior from the fibrous reinforcement to the composite produced. The results show that the NPR values remained in the composites. Regardless of the type of resin used, either epoxy or polyester, the highest values were obtained for samples produced with p-AR auxetic knitted fabrics. The NPR composites developed within this work present great potential for applications in industrial areas, including personal protection products, such as bulletproof vests, helmets, knee, and elbow protectors, and in all other areas where energy absorption is a key factor to be considered.
Trypanosoma cruzi is exposed to oxidative stresses during its life cycle, and amongst the strategies employed by this parasite to deal with these situations sits a peculiar trypanothione-dependent antioxidant system. Remarkably, T. cruzi’s antioxidant repertoire does not include catalase. In an attempt to shed light on what are the reasons by which this parasite lacks this enzyme, a T. cruzi cell line stably expressing catalase showed an increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) when compared with wild-type cells. Interestingly, preconditioning carried out with low concentrations of H2O2 led untransfected parasites to be as much resistant to this oxidant as cells expressing catalase, but did not induce the same level of increased resistance in the latter ones. Also, presence of catalase decreased trypanothione reductase and increased superoxide dismutase levels in T. cruzi, resulting in higher levels of residual H2O2 after challenge with this oxidant. Although expression of catalase contributed to elevated proliferation rates of T. cruzi in Rhodnius prolixus, it failed to induce a significant increase of parasite virulence in mice. Altogether, these results indicate that the absence of a gene encoding catalase in T. cruzi has played an important role in allowing this parasite to develop a shrill capacity to sense and overcome oxidative stress.
The objectives of the present study were to describe and compare the characteristics and reports of end-of-life experiences (ELEs) by healthcare professionals at different institutions and to investigate the influence of religious beliefs on these reports.
A multicenter study was carried out in Brazil that included six nursing homes (NHs), a cancer hospital (ONC), and a palliative care (PC) unit. Sociodemographic data, ELE reports (Fenwick's questionnaire), religiosity (the Duke Religion Index), spirituality (the Spirituality Self-Rating Scale), and mental health (the DASS-21 questionnaire) were assessed. The analysis was performed using ANOVA and chi-square tests in order to compare ELE perceptions in these different settings.
A total of 133 healthcare professionals (46 ONC, 36 PC, and 51 NH) were interviewed, 70% of whom recounted at least one ELE report in the previous five years. The most common ELEs were “visions of dead relatives collecting the dying person” (88.2%), “a desire to mend family rifts” (84.9%), and “visions of dead relatives near the bed providing emotional comfort” (80.6%). Most healthcare professionals (70–80%) believed that these experiences had a spiritual significance and were not due to biological effects. Comparison among settings revealed that those working in the PC unit had more reports, a greater openness about the issue, and more interest in training. Individual religious beliefs had no influence on perception of ELEs.
Significance of Results:
Our study revealed that ELE reports are not uncommon in clinical practice and seem to be little influenced by religious or spiritual beliefs. Although strongly reported in all settings, palliative care professionals tend to be more open to this issue and have a stronger perception of ELEs.