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The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a pre-deployment sequestration (PDS) protocol to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cases on board the USS Ronald Reagan (CVN-76).
The USS Ronald Reagan includes a crew of approximately 3000 Sailors and an embarked Air Wing of 2000 personnel. The PDS was conducted in 3 waves of 14-day strict quarantines during the months of April and May 2020. Sailors were cleared to board the ship with 2 negative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) tests at days 14 and 16. The ship was sanitized before Wave 1 boarding.
From March 1, 2020, through May 31, 2020, a total of 51 SARS-CoV-2 positive cases were detected. During the 3 waves of PDS, 28 Sailors were found to be positive on exit testing (14, 11, and 3, respectively); no cases were found among the Air Wing. During the first 90 days at sea, no SARS-CoV-2 cases were detected among any of the embarked personnel.
Although resource-intensive, the PDS protocol implemented for USS Ronald Reagan resulted in a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-free ship during a global pandemic with unprecedented scope. Elements of this pandemic PDS protocol may be useful in other highly risk-averse environments with no tolerance for COVID-19 infections.
Many children diagnosed with COVID-19 infections did not require hospitalisation. Our objective was to analyse electrocardiographic changes in children with asymptomatic, mild or moderate COVID-19 who did not require hospitalisation
All children are seen in a paediatric cardiology clinic who had asymptomatic, mild or moderate COVID-19 that did not require hospitalisation and had at least one electrocardiogram after their diagnosis were included in this retrospective analysis. Records were reviewed to determine COVID-19 disease severity and presence of Long COVID. Rhythm assessment, atrial enlargement, ventricular hypertrophy, PR/QRS/QT interval duration and ST-T wave abnormalities were analysed by a paediatric electrophysiologist. Clinically ordered echocardiograms were reviewed for signs of myopericarditis (left ventricular ejection fraction and pericardial effusion) on any subject with an electrocardiographic abnormality.
Of the 82 children meeting inclusion criteria (14.4 years, range 1–18 years, 57% male), 17 patients (21%) demonstrated electrocardiographic changes. Ten patients (12%) had electrocardiogram of borderline significance, which included isolated mild PR prolongation or mild repolarisation abnormalities. The other seven patients (9%) had concerning electrocardiographic findings consisting of more significant repolarisation abnormalities. None of the patients with an abnormal electrocardiogram revealed any echocardiographic abnormality. All abnormal electrocardiograms normalised over time except in two cases. Across the entire cohort, greater COVID-19 disease severity and long COVID were not associated with electrocardiographic abnormalities.
Electrocardiographic abnormalities are present in a minority of children with an asymptomatic, mild or moderate COVID-19 infection. Many of these changes resolved over time and no evidence of myopericarditis was present on echocardiography.
In this chapter, we review recent research from a variety of disciplines to outline the role that collective rituals and religious beliefs play in fostering and maintaining cooperation. We consider ritual and religion as interactive but separate social technologies. First, with rituals we discuss their importance to social learning processes, examine their ability to bond groups through synchrony and shared emotion, and address their role as costly, persuasive signals of commitment. Second, we explore "religion" in the form of beliefs about supernatural agents and look at how such beliefs can contribute to – or hinder – cooperation. We evaluate long-standing claims that religion is a harmful social virus and contrasting recent theories that argue belief in "Big Gods" and "supernatural punishment" are crucial to enabling the cooperation necessary for large-scale societies.
Negation with indefinite items in English can be expressed in three ways: any-negation (I didn’t have any money), no-negation (I had no money) and negative concord (I didn’t have no money). These variants have persisted over time, with some studies suggesting that the newest variant, any-negation, is increasing at the expense of no-negation (Tottie 1991a, 1991b). Others suggest that although this variable was undergoing change in earlier centuries, it is stable in Modern English (Wallage 2017). This article examines the current state of the variability in four communities within two distinctive English-speaking regions: Toronto and Belleville in Ontario, Canada, and Tyneside and York in Northern England. Our comparative quantitative analysis of speech corpora from these communities shows that the rates of no-negation vary between Northern England and Ontario, but the variation is largely stable and primarily conditioned by verb type in a robust effect that holds cross-dialectally: functional verbs retain no-negation, while lexical verbs favour any. The social embedding of the variability varies between the communities, but they share a common variable grammar.
Although, for current laser pulse energies, the weakly nonlinear regime of laser wakefield acceleration is known to be the optimal for reaching the highest possible electron energies, the capabilities of upcoming large laser systems will provide the possibility of running highly nonlinear regimes of laser pulse propagation in underdense or near-critical plasmas. Using an extended particle-in-cell (PIC) model that takes into account all the relevant physics, we show that such regimes can be implemented with external guiding for a relatively long distance of propagation and allow for the stable transformation of laser energy into other types of energy, including the kinetic energy of a large number of high energy electrons and their incoherent emission of photons. This is despite the fact that the high intensity of the laser pulse triggers a number of new mechanisms of energy depletion, which we investigate systematically.
Between 1964 and 1990, the notion of nonlocality in Bell's papers underwent a profound change as his nonlocality theorem gradually became detached from quantum mechanics, and referred to wider probabilistic theories involving correlations between separated beables. The proposition that standard quantum mechanics is itself nonlocal (more precisely, that it violates ‘local causality’) became divorced from the Bell theorem per se from 1976 on, although this important point is widely overlooked in the literature. In 1990, the year of his death, Bell would express serious misgivings about themathematical form of the local causality condition and leave ill-defined the issue of the consistency between special relativity and violation of the Bell-type inequality. In our view, the significance of the Bell theorem, in both its deterministic and stochastic forms, can only be fully understood by taking into account the fact that a fully Lorentz covariant version of quantum theory, free of action at a distance, can be articulated in the Everett interpretation.
John S. Bell's last word on his celebrated nonlocality theorem and its interpretation appeared in his 1990 paper ‘La nouvelle cuisine’, first published in the year of his untimely death. Bell was careful here to distinguish between the issue of ‘no superluminal signalling’ in quantum theory (both quantum field theory and quantum mechanics) and a principle he first introduced explicitly in 1976 and called ‘local causality’ . In relation to the former, Bell expressed concerns that amplify doubts he had already expressed in 1976. These concerns touch on what is now widely known as the no-signalling theorem in quantum mechanics, and ultimately have to do with Bell's distaste for what he saw as an anthropocentric element in orthodox quantum thinking. In relation to local causality, Bell emphasised that his famous factorizability (no-correlations) condition is not to be seen ‘as the formulation of local causality, but as a consequence thereof’ and stressed how difficult he found it to articulate this consequence. He left the question of any strict inconsistency between violation of factorizability and special relativity theory unresolved, a not insignificant shift from his thinking up to the early 1980s.
Whole pulses (beans, peas, chickpeas and lentils) elicit low postprandial blood glucose (BG) responses in adults; however, their consumption in North America is low. One potential strategy to increase the dietary intake of pulses is the utilisation of commercial pulse powders in food products; however, it is unclear whether they retain the biological benefits observed with whole pulses. Therefore, the present study examined the effects of commercially prepared pulse powders on BG response before and after a subsequent meal in healthy young men. Overall, three randomised, within-subject experiments were conducted. In each experiment, participants received whole, puréed and powdered pulses (navy beans in Expt 1; lentils in Expt 2; chickpeas in Expt 3) and whole-wheat flour as the control. All treatments were controlled for available carbohydrate content. A fixed-energy pizza meal (50·2 kJ/kg body weight) was provided at 120 min. BG concentration was measured before (0–120 min) and after (140–200 min) the pizza meal. BG concentration peaked at 30 min in all experiments, and pulse forms did not predict their effect on BG response. Compared with the whole-wheat flour control, navy bean treatments lowered peak BG concentrations (Expt 1, P< 0·05), but not the mean BG concentration over 120 min. The mean BG concentration was lower for all lentil (Expt 2, P= 0·008) and chickpea (Expt 3, P= 0·002) treatments over 120 min. Processing pulses to powdered form does not eliminate the benefits of whole pulses on BG response, lending support to the use of pulse powders as value-added food ingredients to moderate postprandial glycaemic response.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
Pulses are low-glycaemic foods rich in protein (20–25 %), resistant starch and fibre that suppress appetite and glycaemia. The objective of the present study was to elucidate the component(s) of yellow peas responsible for these benefits and assess their efficacy as value-added food ingredients. We investigated the effects of 10 or 20 g of isolated yellow pea protein (P10 and P20) or fibre (F10 and F20) on food intake (FI) at an ad libitum pizza meal served at 30 min (Expt 1, n 19) or 120 min (Expt 2, n 20) and blood glucose (BG) and appetite in young, healthy males (20–30 years). In Expt 1, P20 led to lower FI than control (4937 (sem 502) v. 5632 (sem 464) kJ (1180 (sem 120) v. 1346 (sem 111) kcal)) and all other treatments (P < 0·01) and lower cumulative FI (pizza meal kcal+treatment kcal; CFI) compared to F10 (5460 (sem 498) v. 6084 (sem 452) kJ (1305 (sem 119) v. 1454 (sem 108) kcal); P = 0·033). Both protein treatments suppressed mean pre-meal (0–30 min) BG compared to control (P < 0·05), whereas only P20 suppressed mean post-meal (50–120 min) BG (P < 0·01). There was no effect of treatment on pre-meal or post-meal appetite. In Expt 2, there was no effect of treatment on FI, CFI, or pre- or post-meal BG or appetite. In conclusion, protein is the component responsible for the short-term effects of yellow peas in the regulation of glycaemia and FI, but its second-meal effects disappear by 2 h post-consumption.
This chapter addresses the role played by influences during intrauterine or early postnatal life in establishing the risk of osteoporosis in later years. At any age, the amount and quality of an individual's skeleton reflect their experiences from intrauterine life through the years of growth into young adulthood. Epidemiological evidence that the risk of osteoporosis might be modified by the intrauterine and early postnatal environment has emerged from two groups of studies. First, the retrospective cohort studies in which bone mineral measurements were undertaken. Second, mother-offspring cohorts relating the nutrition, body build and lifestyle of pregnant women to the bone mass of their offspring. The two most-studied forms of epigenetic marking are DNA methylation and histone modification. The key nutrients likely to influence fetal bone development include calcium and vitamin D, and therefore this axis provides a model for investigating the epigenetic regulation of bone mass.
Osteoporosis-related fractures have a major impact on health at the individual and societal levels, through associated morbidity and increased mortality. Up to 50% of women and 20% of men at age 50 years may have a fragility fracture in their remaining lifetimes. Nutrition is important throughout the life course. Thus, adequate Ca and vitamin D intake has been shown to reduce risk of fracture in old age. Other factors such as protein and vitamin K may also be important, although the evidence here is less strong. In childhood Ca or vitamin D supplementation trials have demonstrated modest short-term increases in bone mass, but the long-term implications have not been established. Over recent years it has become apparent that maternal nutrition may have critical and far-reaching persistent consequences for offspring health. Thus, reduced maternal fat stores and low levels of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D in pregnancy are associated with reduced bone mass in the offspring; placental Ca transport may be key to these relationships. Wider maternal dietary patterns have also been shown to predict offspring bone mass. These data suggest that an interventional approach aimed at specific micronutrients, such as vitamin D, should be complemented by general optimisation of the mother's diet and lifestyle in order to maximise intrauterine bone mineral accrual and postnatal skeletal growth and thus reduce the burden of osteoporotic fractures in future generations.
Cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are well documented and correlated with functional disability. Although some patients demonstrate normal neuropsychological (NP) functioning, little is known about their functional disability. We examined the cross-sectional functional implications of NP normality and symptomatic remission in older outpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, who were administered a NP battery and performance-based measures of functional and social competence, with their real-world functioning rated by case managers. NP status was classified by the General Deficit Score (GDS) and remission status was based on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), yielding four subsamples of patients: NP normal-remitted (n = 21), NP normal-symptomatic (n = 22), NP impaired-remitted (n = 90), and NP impaired-symptomatic (n = 97). NP normal patients demonstrated better functional and social competence and better ratings of real world functioning, after controlling for premorbid abilities. However, compared to normative date, NP normal patients manifested disability in several real-world domains, including residential status. These results suggest that NP status is a better predictor of functional outcome then symptom status or the interaction of the two factors. The disability seen in NP normal cases indicates that factors other than cognitive impairments may determine aspects of everyday outcomes in schizophrenia. (JINS, 2008, 14, 479–488.)