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A growing body of evidence suggests that indicators of social disadvantage are associated with an increased risk of psychosis. However, only a few studies have specifically looked at cumulative effects and long-term associations. The aims of this study are: To compare the prevalence of specific indicators of social disadvantage at, and prior to, first contact with psychiatric services in patients suffering their first episode of psychosis and in a control sample. To explore long-term associations, cumulative effects, and direction of effects.
We collected information on social disadvantage from 332 patients and from 301 controls recruited from the local population in South London. Three indicators of social disadvantage in childhood and six indicators of social disadvantage in adulthood were analysed.
Across all the domains considered, cases were more likely to report social disadvantage than were controls. Compared with controls, cases were approximately two times more likely to have had a parent die and approximately three times more likely to have experienced a long-term separation from one parent before the age of 17 years. Cases were also more likely than controls to report two or more indicators of adult social disadvantage, not only at first contact with psychiatric services [odds ratio (OR) 9.5], but also at onset of psychosis (OR 8.5), 1 year pre-onset (OR 4.5), and 5 years pre-onset (OR 2.9).
Greater numbers of indicators of current and long-term exposure are associated with progressively greater odds of psychosis. There is some evidence that social disadvantage tends to cluster and accumulate.
Evidence has accumulated that implicates childhood trauma in the aetiology of psychosis, but our understanding of the putative psychological processes and mechanisms through which childhood trauma impacts on individuals and contributes to the development of psychosis remains limited. We aimed to investigate whether stress sensitivity and threat anticipation underlie the association between childhood abuse and psychosis.
We used the Experience Sampling Method to measure stress, threat anticipation, negative affect, and psychotic experiences in 50 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, 44 At-Risk Mental State (ARMS) participants, and 52 controls. Childhood abuse was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.
Associations of minor socio-environmental stress in daily life with negative affect and psychotic experiences were modified by sexual abuse and group (all pFWE < 0.05). While there was strong evidence that these associations were greater in FEP exposed to high levels of sexual abuse, and some evidence of greater associations in ARMS exposed to high levels of sexual abuse, controls exposed to high levels of sexual abuse were more resilient and reported less intense negative emotional reactions to socio-environmental stress. A similar pattern was evident for threat anticipation.
Elevated sensitivity and lack of resilience to socio-environmental stress and enhanced threat anticipation in daily life may be important psychological processes underlying the association between childhood sexual abuse and psychosis.
National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) will be a 3-GeV 792 m circumference third generation synchrotron radiation facility with ultra low emittance and extremely high brightness. There will be a total of 90 multipole storage ring girders supporting the vacuum chambers, multipole magnets and various pieces of ancillary equipment. A major effort is being made to meet the stringent assembly and alignment requirements for the girder assemblies using relatively few and removable positioning fixtures. Girder assembly and alignment will be accomplished in four phases. Each of these phases will be described along with the fixtures required.
Commission 53 on Extrasolar Planets was created at the 2006 Prague General Assembly of the IAU, in recognition of the outburst of astronomical progress in the field of extrasolar planet discovery, characterization, and theoretical work that has occurred since the discovery of the pulsar planets in 1992 and the discovery of the first planet in orbit around a solar-type star in 1995. Commission 53 is the logical successor to the IAU Working Group on Extrasolar Planets WG-ESP, which ended its six years of existence in August 2006. The founding president of Commission 53 is Michael Mayor, in honor of his seminal contributions to this new field of astronomy. The vice-president is Alan Boss, the former chair of the WG-ESP, and the members of the Commission 53 Organizing Committee are the other former members of the WG-ESP.
Despite being widely recognized as a significant public health problem there are surprisingly few contemporary data available on the incidence of pneumonia in the UK. We conducted a general population-based cohort study to determine the incidence of pneumonia in general practice in the United Kingdom. Data were obtained from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) – a computerized, longitudinal, general practice database. Recorded diagnoses of pneumonia between 1991 and 2003 were used to calculate the incidence of pneumonia stratified by year, sex, age group and deprivation score. The overall incidence of pneumonia was 233/100 000 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) 231–235] and this rate was stable between 1991 and 2003. The incidence of pneumonia was slightly lower in females compared to males [age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0·88, 95% CI 0·86–0·89]. Pneumonia was most common in children aged <4 years and adults aged >65 years. There was an increased incidence of pneumonia with higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage such that people living in the most deprived areas of the United Kingdom were 28% more likely to get pneumonia than those in the least deprived areas (age- and gender-adjusted IRR 1·28, 95% CI 1·24–1·32). In conclusion, pneumonia is an important public health problem and the incidence of pneumonia is higher in people at the extremes of age, men and people living in socially deprived areas.