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The flow and fracture behavior of ceramic and other brittle materials under the influence of contact loading is important to both component fabrication and performance. The ease of machining, severity of residual surface damage and rate of wear during subsequent service are controlled to a large degree by the character and extent of the flow zone and its influence on the fracture mode. This Investigation was undertaken to provide experimental verification of the results obtained through elastic/plastic finite element modeling cf the stress distribution and deformations introduced by static contact loading. Experimentally, X-ray double-crystal diffractometry (DCD) was applied to obtain a mapping of the distortions produced beneath a Vickers indenter, and hence to evaluate the effect of material and geometric parameters on the flow and fracture mechanisms.
More than 10 Sub1 rice varieties carrying the submergence-tolerance gene have been released for flood-prone environments in tropical Asia. Improved management practices have been shown to enhance yields of these varieties. The objective of this study was to dissect the growth response of IR64-Sub1 to integrated crop management in a flash flood at the late vegetative stage. Field experiments were conducted at the International Rice Research Institute, Philippines in the dry and wet seasons of 2013. Complete submergence was imposed for 14 days starting at 37 days after transplanting. Integrated management practice (IMP) consisting of: (i) application of fertilizer (compared with no fertilizer use in conventional practice), (ii) use of lower seeding rate (400 vs. 800 kg ha−1) in the nursery bed, (iii) use of slightly older seedling for transplanting (30 vs. 18 day-old), and (iv) higher planting density (33.3 vs. 25.0 hills m−2) gave yields higher by 8–87% compared with the conventional practice (1.3–2.4 t ha−1) in both seasons. This was attributable to higher shoot biomass after water recession, more tillers m−2, greater leaf area expansion and shoot biomass accumulation during the recovery period, and higher filled-grain percentage at maturity. The improved management had no positive effect on panicle formation, spikelets panicle−1, and harvest index since stress was imposed at the transition period between vegetative and reproductive phases. Our results suggest the appropriate nursery management, for submergence-resilient seedlings to further alleviate damage caused by flash floods and increase the yield of Sub1 varieties in flood-prone rainfed lowlands.
Root rots are one of the main biotic constraints to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production, causing losses estimated at 221 000 metric tons a year in sub-Saharan Africa. Until recently, root rots in Ugandan common bean agroecologies were mostly caused by Pythium and Fusarium spp., especially in high altitude areas. But now, severe root rots are observed in low and medium altitude agroecologies characterized by dry and warm conditions. The objective of our study was therefore to ascertain the current prevalence and incidence of common bean root rot diseases in Ugandan common bean agroecologies. Our results show that root rots were present in all seven agroecologies surveyed. Overall, the most rampant root rot was southern blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., followed by root rots caused by Fusarium spp., Pythium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. Our study clearly showed the influence of environmental conditions on the prevalence and incidence of common bean root rots. While Fusarium and Pythium root rots are favoured under low air temperature and high air humidity in highland areas, high incidence of southern blight is favoured by warm and moist conditions of lowland areas. The prevalence and incidence of common bean root rots was mapped, providing a reliable baseline for future studies. Similarly, hotspots identified for common bean root rots will be a very useful resource for evaluation of germplasm and breeding lines for resistance to root rots.
The Global Muon Detector Network (GMDN) is composed by four ground cosmic ray detectors distributed around the Earth: Nagoya (Japan), Hobart (Australia), Sao Martinho da Serra (Brazil) and Kuwait city (Kuwait). The network has operated since March 2006. It has been upgraded a few times, increasing its detection area. Each detector is sensitive to muons produced by the interactions of ~50 GeV Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) with the Earth′s atmosphere. At these energies, GCR are known to be affected by interplanetary disturbances in the vicinity of the earth. Of special interest are the interplanetary counterparts of coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and their driven shocks because they are known to be the main origins of geomagnetic storms. It has been observed that these ICMEs produce changes in the cosmic ray gradient, which can be measured by GMDN observations. In terms of applications for space weather, some attempts have been made to use GMDN for forecasting ICME arrival at the earth with lead times of the order of few hours. Scientific space weather studies benefit the most from the GMDN network. As an example, studies have been able to determine ICME orientation at the earth using cosmic ray gradient. Such determinations are of crucial importance for southward interplanetary magnetic field estimates, as well as ICME rotation.
We are currently conducting three kinds of IR surveys of star forming regions (SFRs) in order to seek for very low-mass young stellar populations. First is a deep JHKs-bands (simultaneous) survey with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m or the UH 2.2m telescopes. Second is a very deep JHKs survey with the CISCO IR camera on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. Third is a high resolution companion search around nearby YSOs with the CIAO adaptive optics coronagraph IR camera on the Subaru. In this contribution, we describe our SIRIUS camera and present preliminary results of the ongoing surveys with this new instrument.
We have made 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the LMC with NANTEN. We report the results of a comparison between CO clouds and SNRs in the LMC. Among the 35 known SNRs, only 10 are possibly associated with CO clouds. These 10 CO clouds and SNRs deserve follow-up studies for possible interactions. We present overlays of CO clouds on the optical images of some of these SNRs.
We have made a 12CO(J = 1−0) survey of the LMC with NANTEN. A sample of 55 giant molecular clouds has been identified and comparisons with stellar clusters, HII regions and SNRs are presented. The connection between the clouds and cluster formation is discussed.
We have made 12CO(J=1-0) observations in the LMC with NANTEN, and compared the detected giant molecular clouds (GMCs) with HII regions and stellar clusters. It is found that ~ 80% of the GMCs are associated with HII regions. The results of comparisons of the GMCs with the HII regions and the stellar clusters are presented.
Fully sampled 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the whole extent of the LMC have been made with a linear resolution of ~ 30 pc at a detection limit of N(H2) = 2 × 1021 cm−2. In addition, several selected regions have been mapped with higher sensitivity corresponding to a detection limit of 1 × 1021 cm−2. Based on these results, a new estimate of the molecular mass in the LMC is presented.
We have made 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the LMC with the NANTEN millimeter-wave telescope and identified about 100 distinct giant molecular clouds (GMCs). A detailed comparison of the GMCs with stellar clusters and a UV image is discussed.
Nano-sized SiOx/C composite was successfully prepared by drip combustion in a fluidized bed reactor. A mixture of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) ant kerosene at a 2:3 volume ratio was used as a precursor solution. The synthesis was carried out between 600 °C and 900 °C. The as-prepared powder (600 °C) consists of SiOx and carbon particles which are approximately ranged from 30 to 80 nm. For the nano-sized SiOx/C composite sample, the heat treatment process was introduced to remove incomplete combustion materials and the dry ball milling was performed to homogenize the distribution of carbon inside the sample. The final sample (nano-sized SiOx/C nanocomposite) was used as an electrode active material and then electrochemical testing was performed. The cell exhibited discharge and charge capacities of 1158 and 533 mAh g-1, respectively, at current density of 50 mAh g-1 in the voltage range between 0.01-3 V versus Li/Li+.
Designing bioactive materials, with controlled metal ion release, exerting significant bioactivity and associated low toxicity for humans, is nowadays one of the most important challenges for the scientific community. In this work, we propose a new material combining the well-known antimicrobial properties of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) with those of bioactive chitosan (CS), a cheap natural polymer widely exploited for its biodegradability and nontoxicity. Here, we used ultrafast femtosecond laser pulses to finely fragment, via laser ablation, a Cu solid target immersed into aqueous CS solutions. Homogeneously dispersed copper-chitosan (Cu-CS) colloids were obtained by tuning the Cu/CS molar ratios, according to the initial chitosan concentration, as well as other experimental parameters. Cu-CS colloids were characterized by several techniques, like UV-Vis and X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS). Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to morphologically characterize the novel nanocomposites.
The 3D morphological evolution of titanium foams as they undergo a two-step fabrication process is quantitatively characterized through x-ray micro- and nano-tomography. In the first process step, a Cu–Ti–Cr–Zr prealloy is immersed in liquid Mg, where Cu is alloyed with Mg while a skeleton of crystalline Ti–Cr–Zr is created. In the second step, the Mg–Cu phase is etched in acid, leaving a Ti–Cr–Zr foam with submicron struts. 3D images of these solidified Ti–Cr–Zr/Mg–Cu composites and leached Ti–Cr–Zr foams are acquired after 5, 10, and 30 min exposure to liquid Mg. As the Mg exposure time increases, the Ti–Cr–Zr ligaments grow in size. The tortuosity loosely follows the Bruggeman relation. The interfacial surface distribution of these Ti-foams is qualitatively similar to other nano-porous metal prepared by one-step dealloying. The characteristic length of the Mg–Cu phase and pores are also reported.
Iodine filters expended after nuclear fuel reprocessing contain radioactive iodine (I-129), almost all of which exists as silver iodide (AgI). The synthetic rock technique is a solidification treatment technique using hot isostatic press (HIP), in which the alumina adsorbent base material is synthesized to form a dense solidified material (synthetic rock), and I-129 is physically confined in the form of AgI in the alumina matrix. Thus, it is necessary to understand the matrix dissolution behavior to evaluate the iodine release behavior.
Experiments involving the dissolution of the matrix were carried out under various temperatures (35–70 °C) and pH values (10–12.5) that reflect the disposal conditions. The results of the experiments showed that the dissolution rate of Al visibly increases with temperature and pH. The dissolution rate constant was calculated from the initial data assuming the dissolution of the matrix as a primary reaction. The logarithmic rate constant showed a good linear correlation with the pH and the reciprocal of temperature. The 27Al-NMR analysis of the solutions of the dissolved matrix showed that the major chemical species present in the solutions was Al(OH)4-. This indicated that the dissolution of the matrix can be described by the following equation: Al2O3 + 2OH- + 3H2O → 2Al(OH)4-. Subsequently, the empirical equation of the rate of dissolution of the matrix as a function of the temperature and pH was derived. It will be used to evaluate the iodine release behavior from the synthetic rock.
Oxygen potentials of PuO2-x were measured at temperatures of 1473 - 1873 K by thermo-gravimetry. The oxygen potentials were determined by in situ analysis as functions of oxygen-to-metal ratio and temperature. The measurement data were analyzed on the basis of defect chemistry and an approximate equation was derived to represent the relationship among temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and deviation x in PuO2-x.
In this study, sintered pellets were prepared from Zircaloy-2 oxide and UO2 as a parameter of content ratio (Zr contents were 0, 24.3, 49.0, 73.4, and 97.9 at% in metal). The sintered pellets were heated in 5%H2/Ar gas. UO2 pellets underwent simple thermal expansion caused by thermal vibration while Zircaloy-2 oxide pellets underwent thermal expansion and volume change with phase transformation. Finally, the 24.3, 49.0, and 73.5 at%Zr-UO2 pellet specimens showed both phenomena. However, phase transformation temperatures were lower than that of Zircaloy-2 oxide, and volume changes were much smaller. X-ray diffraction patterns obtained after thermal expansion measurements showed that the 24.3 at%Zr-UO2 specimen contained tetragonal and cubic (Zr, U)O2 while the 73.5 at%Zr-UO2 specimen contained mainly monoclinic ZrO2.
Corium which simulates the molten core of a Boiling Water Reactor was prepared as a parameter of Zr content, and melting temperatures and thermal conductivities were measured. The melting temperatures were measured by the thermal arrest method and were 2622 oC, 2509 oC and 2540 oC, respectively, in the specimens of 24.3 at%, 49.0 at% and 73.5 at% Zr content. Thermal conductivities had low values of 2.0-3.5 W/m oC at temperatures of 400 to 1600 oC.
Aqueous dissolution tests of AgI were performed in Na2S solutions in order to evaluate, empirically, dissolution of AgI to release iodine under reducing conditions with sulfide. The results indicated that AgI dissolves to release iodine being controlled by mainly precipitation of Ag2S. However, the dissolution of AgI can be depressed to proceed, and the thermodynamic equilibrium cannot be attained easily. Solid phase analysis for the reacted AgI suggested that a thin layer of solid silver forming at AgI surface may evolve to be protective against transportation of reactant species, which can lead to the depression in the dissolution of AgI.
We present the results and critical analyses of recent studies of ultrafast optical nonlinearities of liquid crystals in the isotropic and ordered phases for time scales spanning femtoseconds – microseconds. Pure undoped liquid crystals as well as liquid crystals containing plasmonic nano-particles have been investigated. Individual molecular electronic optical nonlinearities are found to be useful for femtoseconds – nanoseconds nonlinear transmission clamping applications. On the other hand, laser induced order parameter and birefringence modification in aligned nematic cells allow very rapid transmission switching of visible as well as near infrared lasers with response times in the sub-microseconds - few nanoseconds regime.