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The RemoveDEBRIS mission has been the first mission to successfully demonstrate, in-orbit, a series of technologies that can be used for the active removal of space debris. The mission started late in 2014 and was sponsored by a grant from the EC that saw a consortium led by the Surrey Space Centre to develop the mission, from concept to in-orbit demonstrations, that terminated in March 2019. Technologies for the capture of large space debris, like a net and a harpoon, have been successfully tested together with hardware and software to retrieve data on non-cooperative target debris kinematics from observations carried out with on board cameras. The final demonstration consisted of the deployment of a drag-sail to increase the drag of the satellite to accelerate its demise.
Particle transport, acceleration and energization are phenomena of major importance for both space and laboratory plasmas. Despite years of study, an accurate theoretical description of these effects is still lacking. Validating models with self-consistent, kinetic simulations represents today a new challenge for the description of weakly collisional, turbulent plasmas. We perform simulations of steady state turbulence in the 2.5-dimensional approximation (three-dimensional fields that depend only on two-dimensional spatial directions). The chosen plasma parameters allow to span different systems, going from the solar corona to the solar wind, from the Earth’s magnetosheath to confinement devices. To describe the ion diffusion we adapted the nonlinear guiding centre (NLGC) theory to the two-dimensional case. Finally, we investigated the local influence of coherent structures on particle energization and acceleration: current sheets play an important role if the ions’ Larmor radii are of the order of the current sheet’s size. This resonance-like process leads to the violation of the magnetic moment conservation, eventually enhancing the velocity-space diffusion.
Introduction: BACKGOUND In the modern era of terrorism and senseless violence, it is essential that hospital staff have expertise in implementation of a mass casualty incident (MCI) plan. OBJECTIVES 1. To assess current gaps in implementation of an academic urban hospital code orange plan using live simulation and tabletop exercise. 2. To identify and educate front-line staff to champion a hospital-wide MCI plan. INNOVATION Historically, in order to limit resource utilization and impact on patient care, disaster response training of front-line staff involved tabletop exercises only. The tenets of experiential learning suggest that learner engagement through realistic active practice of skills achieves deeper uptake of new knowledge. We enhanced the traditional tabletop approach through novel use of live actor patients presenting to an academic, urban emergency department (ED) during a hospital-wide MCI simulation. Methods: To assess the current code orange plan, an interprofessional, committee comprising expert leaders in trauma, emergency preparedness, emergency medicine and simulation integrated tabletop and live simulation to stage a MCI based on a mock incident at a new subway station. ED staff, the trauma team and champions from medicine, surgery and critical care participated along with support departments such as Patient Flow, Patient Transport, Environmental Services and the Hospital Emergency Operations Centre. Ten live actor patients and eight virtual patients presented to the ED. The exercise occurred in situ in the ED. Other participating departments conducted tabletop exercises and received live actor patients. Results: CURRICULUM Staff decanted the ED and other participating units using their current knowledge of hospital code orange policy. Live and virtual patients were triaged and managed according to severity of injuries. Live actor patients were assessed, intervened and transported to their designated unit. Virtual patients were managed through verbal discussion with the simulation controllers. An ED debrief took place using a plus/delta approach followed by a hospital-wide debrief. Conclusion: CONCLUSION An interprofessional hospital-wide MCI simulation revealed important challenges such as communication, command and control and patient-tracking . The exercise ignited enthusiasm and commitment to longitudinal practice and improvement for identified gaps.
The Fifth IPCC Assessment Report estimates the world's ‘carbon budget’, which is the cumulative amount of anthropogenic CO2 emissions limiting global warming below 2°C. We model this carbon budget as a resource asset depleted by annual GHG emissions, and estimate the user cost associated with depletion. For constant emissions, social welfare increases US$3.3 trillion (6 per cent of global GDP) over the business as usual scenario of growing emissions, and the carbon budget's lifetime increases from 18 to 21 years. For declining emissions, the gain is US$10.4 trillion (19 per cent of global GDP), and the budget's lifetime is 30 years. Extending indefinitely the lifetime of the carbon budget would require emissions to fall exponentially by 4.8 per cent or more. Although the Paris Agreement abatement pledges will generate social gains of US$2–2.5 trillion (4–5 per cent of world GDP), they are insufficient to prevent depletion of the 2°C global carbon budget by 2030.
Desiré is preserved in two manuscripts: (i) S and (ii) MS Cologny-Genève, Bibliotheca Bodmeriana, Codex Bodmer 82 (MS P in Prudence Tobin's edition). Our translation is based on S, a slightly longer version of the story.
The tale begins in Scotland with the hero's parents, who are childless until they visit St Giles in Provence. The wife soon becomes pregnant and they name their son Desiré (the Desired One’). When he grows up, he enters the service of a king and, having been made a knight, wins fame. Summoned by his father, he returns home. While there, he goes riding in the forest and decides to visit a hermit he had known in his youth. On the way he encounters a beautiful maiden whom he attempts to woo, but she persuades him to let her take him to her mistress. She turns out to be a fairy and Desiré falls in love with her. They become lovers, and when he leaves her she gives him a ring, telling him he will lose it if he transgresses in any way. Thereafter, they meet regularly and she bears him two children. Having been away fighting a war for his king, Desiré returns home and one day visits the hermit to whom he confesses his love for the fairy. The hermit imposes a penance and the ring immediately disappears. He cannot find his beloved at the usual meeting place. In despair at losing her, he becomes ill, and it is only after a year, when he is close to death, that the fairy appears to him. She reprimands him, but after this their relationship starts up again.
Several years later, while out hunting, Desiré and the king both shoot at a stag, but they miss their target and then cannot find their arrows. A youth appears, carrying the arrows and declaring that he is Desiré's son. He is taken to court to be with his father, but after a couple of months he suddenly leaves in order to return to his mother. A distraught Desiré rides after him and comes upon a dwarf who is cooking meat over a fire.
Nabaret is preserved in just one manuscript: P (Cologny-Genève, Bibliotheca Bodmeriana, Codex Bodmer 82). At forty-eight lines, it is the shortest lay in the present collection.
The lay concerns a power struggle between husband and wife. A knight has a wife of high lineage who, in his view, spends too much time and money on her appearance. He accuses her of dressing to please another man, but his exhortations fall on deaf ears. He turns to her family for help, but instead of providing a solution to his problems this only makes matters worse. For she tells her parents that if he does not like her dressing fashionably, there is only one form of revenge that a jealous man can adopt: ‘He should let his beard grow long and have his whiskers braided’ (vv. 38–39). The parents, and all those who later hear it, find the riposte highly amusing.
The problem for the modern reader is that it is not easy to determine precisely why the wife's remark stimulates such hilarity. Is she saying that her husband should change his appearance in such a way that he will become her rival in looks, and she will be jealous of him rather than he of her? Or does she mean that by taking her advice he would make himself look as odd as she would if she did what he wanted her to do. Or perhaps what the wife wishes to convey is that, although he is no doubt still a relatively young man, his view of her behaviour is redolent of an old man, or a patriarchal figure, who, at a time when young men were clean shaven, would have been more likely to sport a moustache or a braided beard. The implication would then seemingly be that if he wants to behave like an old man she for her part has no intention of looking any older that she actually is. Whatever she means, the notion of revenge is clearly important to the lady, as she mentions it twice (vv. 36, 40). But why would a brave and courtly knight want to take revenge on his wife by looking like a much older, authoritarian figure?
Mantel (Mantle) is preserved in five manuscripts: (i) S; (ii) A: Paris, BNF, fr. 1593; (iii) B: Berne, Bibliothèque de Berne 354; (iv) C: Paris, BNF, fr. 353; (v) T: Paris, BNF, fr. 837. Our translation is based on S. The length of the text varies considerably. S is the longest version at 913 lines; the shortest, at 727 lines, is BNF, fr. 353. The title accorded to this lay has varied over the years. A popular early title was Le Mantel Mautaillié [‘The Ill-Fitting Mantle’], but it has also been called Le Lai du Cort Mantel [‘The Lay of the Short Mantle’], or just Le Cort Mantel [‘The Short Mantle’]. The only term that is common to all titles, medieval or modern, is ‘Mantel’, so we have retained this as our title. Mantel is one of five Arthurian lays in the present collection, the others being Cor, Melion, Trot and Tyolet.
King Arthur holds court at Pentecost and many knights and ladies are present. When the time comes for the main meal, Arthur states that it would not be appropriate to eat before some new adventure has come to the court. A handsome youth then arrives, saying that he has been sent by a maiden from afar, who requests a boon from King Arthur. Having been granted the boon, the youth then draws from his pouch a superbly crafted mantle. It has been made by a fairy and is designed to detect any disloyalty in women: if any lady or maiden has betrayed her husband or lover, the mantle will be either too long or too short. The lady whom the mantle fits perfectly will be able to keep it. The youth wants the king to have the ladies of the court try on the garment without being told of its properties. The queen, who wants the mantle for herself, does so, but it turns out to be too short for her. There follows a lengthy section in which a variety of ladies try on the mantle with different results; sometimes it is too short, sometimes too long.
The lay of Trot is preserved in only one manuscript: Paris, Arsenal 3516. At 303 lines, it is one of the shorter lays in this collection. It is also one of five Arthurian lays, the others being Cor, Mantel, Melion and Tyolet.
A knight at Arthur's court named Lorois decides one day to go and hear the song of the nightingale. As he draws near the forest, a group of eighty happy maidens emerges, all elegantly dressed. This group is followed by a second group of similar size, and this time the maidens are accompanied by their lovers. Next comes a further group of one hundred maidens, who are lamenting and riding emaciated horses trotting uncomfortably. Then a group of a hundred men emerges, suffering in the same way as the previous group of ladies. Finally, a maiden approaches on horseback. Her animal is also trotting and causing her such distress that she can scarcely speak from the pain. But she manages to tell Lorois that the maidens in the first groups have been faithful servants of love, whereas all those who are suffering have treated love with disdain. She warns that this will be the lot of any living woman who does not love. Lorois returns to court to warn the ladies and relate his adventure.
The lay of Trot is commonly compared with a passage in the De Amore of Andreas Capellanus (Book I, Chapter 6, Section E), which bears some similarities to the events described in the lay. Although this is only a short lay, consisting basically of one extended episode, it nevertheless manages to incorporate a well-integrated mixture of elements. Lorois's link with the essential theme of the lay (i.e. the need to engage in love) is discreetly signalled by his urge to go out and search for and to hear the song of the nightingale, a symbol of love. There is a significant emphasis on clothing: Lorois is elegantly attired, as are the women and men in the happy groups, while those in the other groups are more unkempt. In this way clothing reflects contrasting states of mind – happy, contented and fulfilled as against unhappy and physically uncomfortable.
Conseil (Advice) is preserved in five manuscripts: (i) S (C in Grigoriu, Peersman and Rider); (ii) A: Paris, BNF, fr. 837; (iii) B: Paris, BNF, fr. 1593; (iv) D: Paris, BNF, Rothschild 2800; (v) E: Paris, BNF, Moreau 1729 (an incomplete eighteenth-century copy). Our translation is based on S, which is currently unpublished (an edition by Leslie C. Brook is forthcoming in the 2016 issue of Le Cygne). The recent translation by Grigoriu and Rider is based on A.
One Christmas Eve, at a large gathering in an unspecified plenary court, there is much talk of love. A powerful and wealthy lady present is being courted by three knights. Parting from them amicably, she approaches a knight she sees sitting alone. She tells him of her situation and asks his advice about which of the three is most suitable for her. First, he asks her to tell him about the respective qualities of the three knights. This she does briefly, relying on both her own observations and hearsay. The knight comments on each of the three suitors, condemning braggarts and slanderous talk and stressing the need for secrecy in love. But he refuses to choose between them, suggesting that she should seek advice from others and not rely simply on him. The lady is nevertheless impressed by the openness of his responses and the discussion is then prolonged by her request that he tell her more about the nature of love and how to keep it secret. The knight answers all her questions at length, dealing with both desirable and undesirable behaviour in men and women. Finally, she is so taken by his advice and obvious knowledge of the world that she gives him a belt she is wearing and asks him to present it to the man most suitable to receive her love. He puts the belt around his own waist and offers to be her companion in love. They become discreet lovers, and her wealth enables him to attend tournaments, which he often wins. After a time, the lady's husband dies and the couple are able to marry and live happily together.
Aristote (Aristotle) is preserved in six manuscripts: (i) S; (ii) A: Paris, BNF, fr. 837; (iii) B: Paris, BNF, fr. 1593; (iv) D: Paris, BNF, 19152; (v) E: Paris, BNF, Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal 351; (vi) F: Saint-Omer, Bibliothèque Municipale 68. Our translation is based on S. MSS S and E fail to provide us with the name of an author, but the other four manuscripts give the author's name as Henris (v. 543 in the edition by Maurice Delbouille and v. 545 in that by Alain Corbellari). This Henri was long thought to be Henri d'Andeli, a native of Andelys in Normandy and the author of several other works that are usually described as dits (the Bataille des vins, the Dit du chancelier Philippe and the Bataille des sept arts). However, more recent research, especially that of Corbellari and François Zufferey, has led to the suggestion that the author concerned is Henri de Valenciennes, a cleric or professional writer who was attached to the court of Count Baldwin IX of Flanders and VI of Hainaut. This Henri wrote the Vie de saint Jean l'Évangéliste and the Jugement de Nostre Seigneur. A comparative analysis of the language, style and rhymes of the three dits plus the lay of Aristote and the known works of Henri de Valenciennes strongly suggests that the lay was not composed by Henri d'Andeli.
The tale tells of the fate of the famous philosopher Aristotle, who tries to interfere in the love life of his equally famous master, King Alexander the Great. The king has conquered Greater India, but instead of relaxing in the company of his men, and preparing for future military endeavours, he is in thrall to a maiden with whom he has become infatuated. His men begin to grumble about this behind his back and their complaints come to the ears of his tutor Aristotle. Thinking he should intervene, Aristotle argues that it is wrong to forsake one's companions in favour of a single woman, and a foreigner at that. Alexander responds by praising the notion of commitment to one woman and by claiming that those who reprimand him lack love within themselves.
Cor (Horn) is preserved in only one manuscript: Oxford, Bodleian Library, Digby 86. The lay is attributed to Robert Biket (‘Ceo dist Robert Bikez’, v. 589), about whom nothing is known. Cor is one of five Arthurian lays in this collection, the others being Mantel, Melion, Trot and Tyolet.
In order to celebrate Pentecost, King Arthur holds a feast at Caerleon attended by a large number of knights and maidens. A handsome youth arrives bearing a magic ivory horn, which is sumptuously decorated and has golden bells attached to it. When shaken, these bells compel all those who hear them to cease what they are doing and to listen, enthralled. After making the assembled court pause and listen, the youth then addresses the king. He tells him that the horn is a gift from the King of Moray and the king gratefully accepts it. The youth refuses to eat with them, rather he departs, promising to return for his reward. The horn is admired by all and at the king's request the chaplain interprets the inscription on it. He reads it out to the whole assembly: the horn was fashioned by a spiteful fairy who has arranged a spell on it whereby no man can drink from it without spilling its contents down himself if he has been cuckolded or jealous, or has a wife who has ever had lewd thoughts about any man other than her husband. The assembled ladies are disconcerted, but Arthur confidently insists on having the horn filled with wine in order to test it out. When the wine spills all over him, he has to be restrained from stabbing the queen. The queen excuses herself by saying that the strict truth revealed by the horn can be explained by the fact that she had given a golden ring to a youth as a token of love, to thank him for having slain a giant who had wrongfully made an accusation against Gauvain. Yvain proposes that all the men should try it and the king insists that the other kings present do so. Predictably, they all fail. Seeing that the humiliation and mockery are shared by all the kings, Arthur laughs and forgives the queen.