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This chapter discusses the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples from a gendered perspective, considering the different health needs and outcomes experienced by men and women. It begins by unpacking the construct of gender and discussing how gender and gender variations are viewed and accepted by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The Indigenous understandings of women’s business and men’s business are discussed from historical and contemporary perspectives, with a strong focus on the National Aboriginal Health Strategy’s definitions of the two. The chapter then discusses the differences in health outcomes between Indigenous and non-Indigenous men and women, and how the different views they have of health may affect them, before considering how nurses can best provide gender-appropriate care to their Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients. The chapter concludes by considering how Australian policies have varied in meeting the gendered needs of Indigenous Australians, and how the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men and women is changing and will continue to do so into the future.
This chapter introduces readers to Indigenous-led research, with a particular focus on qualitative methods. It begins by discussing the history of Indigenous research, which has not always been ethical or culturally appropriate, before discussing the relatively recent push for change as Indigenous people advocated for research by, for and about Indigenous people. This has seen an increase in culturally safe research, where the needs of Indigenous communities are considered throughout the research process. It provides guidance for nurses and midwives to begin research projects, and considers how they can apply ethical research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. The chapter then considers common qualitative methods that can be used, before discussing how to undertake a culturally safe qualitative research project by understanding community protocols and engaging the community. The chapter guides readers through the process of ethics approvals, identifying and recruiting participants, conducting focus groups and displaying findings.
This chapter explores the care of Elders and older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. It discusses the shorter lifespan and earlier prevalence of chronic conditions, including dementia, in Indigenous Australians. The chapter calls for a human rights approach to caring for older Aboriginals and Torres Strait Islander people and promotes patient-centred care that considers the rights of Indigenous peoples. It explores the current health policies and strategies implemented within Australia, which provide guidance on caring for older Indigenous Australians. The importance of nurses providing culturally safe aged care and palliative care is discussed.
This chapter discusses the role of community controlled health services in the Australian healthcare system and their contribution to improving health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. It begins by exploring the establishment of community controlled health services in Brisbane in response to the different health needs of Indigenous people at the time. The chapter then discusses the concept of community control, defining it as being by the community, for the community. Aboriginal community controlled health organisations (ACCHOs) are led by, based in and governed by Indigenous communities. The chapter discusses the experience of working in a community controlled clinic as part of a multidisciplinary team. Key health services, including the National Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Organisation (NACCHO) and the Queensland Aboriginal and Islander Health Council (QAIHC), and their contribution to culturally safe care, are discussed in detail. The chapter concludes by considering recent changes to the Australian healthcare sector and future opportunities for ACCHOs.
Yatdjuligin: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nursing and Midwifery Care introduces students to the fundamentals of health care of Indigenous Australians, encompassing the perspectives of both the client and the health practitioner. Written for all nurses and midwives, this book addresses the relationship between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultures and mainstream health services and introduces readers to practice and research in a variety of healthcare contexts. This new edition has been fully updated to reflect current research and documentation, with an emphasis on cultural safety. Three new chapters cover Torres Strait Islander health and wellbeing, social and emotional wellbeing in mainstream mental health services and quantitative research. Chapter content is complemented by case study scenarios, author reflections and reflection questions. These features illustrate historical and contemporary challenges, encourage students to reflect on their own attitudes and values, and provide strategies to deliver quality, person-centred health care.