To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The present study set out to determine whether morning spot urine samples can be used to monitor Na (and K) intake levels in South Africa, instead of the ‘gold standard’ 24 h urine sample.
Participants collected one 24 h and one spot urine sample for Na and K analysis, after which estimations using three different formulas (Kawasaki, Tanaka and INTERSALT) were calculated.
Between 2013 and 2015, urine samples were collected from different population groups in South Africa.
A total of 681 spot and 24 h urine samples were collected from white (n 259), black (n 315) and Indian (n 107) subgroups, mostly women.
The Kawasaki and the Tanaka formulas showed significantly higher (P≤0·001) estimated Na values than the measured 24 h excretion in the whole population (5677·79 and 4235·05 v. 3279·19 mg/d). The INTERSALT formula did not differ from the measured 24 h excretion for the whole population. The Kawasaki formula seemed to overestimate Na excretion in all subgroups tested and also showed the highest degree of bias (−2242 mg/d, 95 % CI−10 659, 6175) compared with the INTERSALT formula, which had the lowest bias (161 mg/d, 95 % CI−4038, 4360).
Estimations of Na excretion by the three formulas should be used with caution when reporting on Na intake levels. More research is needed to validate and develop a specific formula for the South African context with its different population groups. The WHO’s recommendation of using 24 h urine collection until more studies are carried out is still supported.