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This chapter discusses the main debates surrounding climate adaptation law. Adaptation to climate change is often presented as a subfield of climate law, alongside that of mitigation. Article 7 of the Paris Agreement establishes ‘the global goal on adaptation’ and links it with the Article 2 mitigation goal, thus lending support for the idea that an adaptation law might develop under the influence of the Paris Agreement, at least at the domestic level. Nevertheless, many in the field are sceptical: adaptation efforts often consist in the implementation of pre-existing developmental, environmental, or human-rights policies that are highly localized in their outlook. This chapter reviews the wealth of views on whether ‘adaptation law’ has emerged or should be recognized as a legal field, creating new, legally enforceable rights and obligations.
An increasing number of jurisdictions are using environmental impact assessment as a tool for climate change mitigation (in brief, ‘Climate Assessment’, or CA). This chapter debates whether this is a legal obligation, or whether this even makes sense. Benoit Mayer argues that CA is emerging as a rule of customary international law, and that, moreover, it is a potentially useful mitigation tool. Alexander Zahar, by contrast, questions the meaningfulness of CA, arguing that it is impossible to determine what constitutes a significant, excessive, or disproportionate emission of greenhouse gases in the case of a proposed activity subject to CA, or at all.
This conclusion highlights the key themes developed throughout the book. It identifies three main questions to which climate law scholarship seeks to respond: What are states’ obligations? What are the foundations of climate law? How does climate change transform the law?
This chapter outlines the most debatable points regarding the legal foundations of climate finance, focusing primarily on the provisions of the UNFCCC and Paris Agreement as well as associated instruments. The legally relevant debates about climate finance come down to the question of whether there is an obligation for developed countries to provide climate finance to developing countries, and, if so, what it consists in. In this respect, the chapter – after outlining the main legal provisions – discusses debates about the following points:
The chapter also proposes possible future directions for legal reflection. Owing to this volume’s focus, the chapter does not cover all provisions related to climate finance but only the aspects that are legally controversial.