To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This chapter interrogates Hannah Arendt’s The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951) to better understand the violence of European imperialism in Africa and its impact on later developments, including the Holocaust. It argues that most readers have failed to properly understand Arendt’s own views of temporality and causation in popular appropriations such as the so-called “boomerang thesis.” Instead, the insights of African historiography and critical theory are used to propose a new reading of Arendt that reveals the contingency and counterintuitive turns of modern violence.
Overland travel was and remains at the heart of every Hajj. Even the denizens of Mecca must get to ʿArafat for the vigil (wuqūf), a short journey outside of the holy city made by crossing over solid ground. Movement on land comprises the many rites of Hajj such as the circumambulation (ṭawāf) of the Kaʿba, the pilgrims’ dispersal after the ʿArafat vigil (ifāḍa) and the back and forth traverse (saʿy) between al-Ṣafa and al-Marwa, two hillocks in Mecca. This last rite arguably introduces pilgrims to the essence of overland travel in this region by having them commemorate the desperate running of Ismāʿīl's mother, Hajar, as she searched the desert for water for her dying son. But while these movements of people over land are obligatory rites, the method by which pilgrims get to the Hijaz region in the first place is not subject to orthodox prescriptions. In principle, people can choose their own way to travel.
The methods of travel on the Hajj have evolved significantly since the beginnings of Islam. In the early years, during the four Rāshidūn caliphs (632–661 CE), when the compact community of believers was centered in nearby Medina, pilgrims made their way to the holy places mounted or on foot, often led by the caliph himself. But when Islam expanded to the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean – the Arabian peninsula itself flanked by the “lakes of Islam,” the Red Sea and Arabian/Persian Gulf – water travel offered an option to landed itineraries to Mecca, even if it would not be until the nineteenth century that steam ships traveling through the Suez canal (opened in 1869) partially supplanted the caravans from places to Mecca's north and west. And today, air provides what is far and away the most utilized element for Hajj travel, conveying 79 percent of people making the pilgrimage from abroad in 1994, compared to 9 percent by sea, and 12 percent by land; this shift toward air travel continues, with 94 percent of nonresident pilgrims traveling to the Hijaz by plane in 2013.
Vodun, or Vodou as it is known in the Caribbean and the Americas, is the predominant religious system of southern Bénin and Togo. Domestic enslavement is the source of a Vodun complex known as Tchamba. This chapter begins with some general information about transatlantic and domestic slavery in this region. It introduces an example of domestic slavery via a landmark piece of African francophone literature. The chapter demonstrates how the visual within Vodun marks people and spaces as dedicated to the remembrance of slavery. It focuses on Tchamba Vodun shrines and temple paintings as primary documents, emphasizing the main iconographic symbology. The chapter then describes a new Tchamba spirit with contemporary meanings derived from the growing cognizance of the transatlantic slave trade. It presents two field stories, Couchoro's L'Esclave and tracing Tchamba roots, addressing present-day complications revolving around histories of domestic slavery.