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This chapter focuses on defining and illustrating multimedia learning of metacognitive strategies, and reviews the empirical literature on multimedia learning of metacognitive strategies. It provides suggestions for augmenting contemporary cognitive theories of multimedia learning, proposes empirically based principles for designing multimedia environments aimed at fostering metacognitive strategies, and recommends several areas for future research. The chapter specifies self-regulated learning (SRL) as a concept superordinate to metacognition that incorporates both metacognitive monitoring (i.e., knowledge of cognition or metacognitive knowledge) and metacognitive control, as well as processes related to manipulating contextual conditions and planning for future activities within a learning episode. More research on multimedia learning of metacognitive strategies is needed to determine the optimal length of various phases of training programs and their effectiveness in laboratory versus real-world settings, as well as the retention and transfer of strategies to other domains and computer-based learning environments (CBLEs).
Epidemiological studies of schizophrenia suggest that this disorder has a substantial genetic component. Cognitive and social abilities, as well as the volumes of brain regions involved in emotion processing, have been found to be distributed along a continuum when comparing patients, siblings and controls, with siblings showing intermediate scores.
To establish whether facial expression recognition is impaired in unaffected siblings of patients.
Emotion and gender recognition were evaluated in a three-group pre–post study design in drugnaive patients with first-episode schizophrenia (n=40) and their unaffected siblings (n=30) compared with controls (n=26).
Patients and their healthy siblings showed impaired emotion recognition but normal gender recognition compared with controls. Patients' performance did not improve despite effective clinical stabilisation.
Impaired performance in healthy siblings and time stability in patients provides evidence of impairment of facial emotion recognition as an actual phenotype of schizophrenia.
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