To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The field of clinical neuropsychology has increasingly recognized the importance of cultural and identity factors through the development of clinical, research, and educational initiatives. Only within the last 10 years have guidelines for psychological practice with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) people included recommendations for neuropsychological assessment. However, it remains unclear to what extent neuropsychologists have acquired the knowledge and skills necessary to implement these recommendations. It is also unknown whether they engage in LGBTQ+ inclusive neuropsychological assessment. In this study, we surveyed the LGBTQ+ related education, training, and clinical practice of independently licensed neuropsychologists in the United States. We sought to understand the implementation of inclusive guidelines, including factors that predict affirmative neuropsychological assessment. We hypothesized that sexual/gender identities, female identity, recency of training, and LGBTQ+ related education would be associated with use of recommended practices.
Participants and Methods:
A workgroup of clinical psychologists with experience in LGBTQ+ psychology and neuropsychology developed a survey to identify personal and professional factors that predict LGBTQ+ affirmative neuropsychological assessment practices. The survey was distributed through professional organizations and listservs between August and September 2021 with 118 responses meeting inclusionary criteria. We used logistic, multinomial logistic, and ordinal logit regressions to examine unadjusted, univariate effects. Predictors included in the final, adjusted, univariate and multivariate models were those for which we had specific hypotheses and variables that predicted more than two affirming practice behaviors.
The majority of participants identified as heterosexual (70.3%), cisgender (97.5%), and female (66.1%). Participants reported obtaining their highest degree between 1977 and 2019. Most obtained a Ph.D. (73.7%), were not board-certified (69.5%), and worked primarily with adults (54.2%). Generally, participants reported having little experience working with LGBTQ+ patients. However, they reported greater exposure to lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities as compared to transgender and queer identities. Most (48-63%) received LGBTQ+ training post-licensure. Between 19% and 32% of participants reported never completing LGBTQ+ specific education. Participants described using affirmative clinical practice behaviors either “always/often” or “never/rarely.” Factors predicting those practice behaviors were LGBTQ+ education/training, prior experience with LGBTQ+ patients, primary patient population (child vs. adult), and personal background (sexual minority status, female gender, and years since degree). When in need of consultation, the current sample consulted with their colleagues most often (n = 95) followed by academic literature (n = 90) and professional organizations (n = 80). Qualitative responses indicated varying attitudes and knowledge regarding collection of LGBTQ+ information and modification of clinical practice.
Consistent with the broader clinical psychology literature, neuropsychologists have limited education/training on LGBTQ+ concepts. Neuropsychologists underutilize affirming practices as evidenced by low rates of querying pronouns, knowing whether LGBTQ+ health information is available at their institutions, and adjusting evaluation and feedback approaches. Our findings imply a great need to expand continuing education trainings to address providers’ gaps and limitations, including opportunities for inclusive neuropsychological services throughout the assessment process (interview, testing, feedback). We present additional recommendations for future research as well as resources.
This study examined the relationship between patient performance on multiple memory measures and regional brain volumes using an FDA-cleared quantitative volumetric analysis program – Neuroreader™.
Ninety-two patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by a clinical neuropsychologist completed cognitive evaluations and underwent MR Neuroreader™ within 1 year of testing. Select brain regions were correlated with three widely used memory tests. Regression analyses were conducted to determine if using more than one memory measures would better predict hippocampal z-scores and to explore the added value of recognition memory to prediction models.
Memory performances were most strongly correlated with hippocampal volumes than other brain regions. After controlling for encoding/Immediate Recall standard scores, statistically significant correlations emerged between Delayed Recall and hippocampal volumes (rs ranging from .348 to .490). Regression analysis revealed that evaluating memory performance across multiple memory measures is a better predictor of hippocampal volume than individual memory performances. Recognition memory did not add further predictive utility to regression analyses.
This study provides support for use of MR Neuroreader™ hippocampal volumes as a clinically informative biomarker associated with memory performance, which is a critical diagnostic feature of MCI phenotype.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.