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Depictions of eye images and messages encouraging compliance with social norms have successfully motivated behavioral change in a variety of experimental and applied settings. We studied the effect of these 2 visual cues on hand hygiene adherence in a cohort of hospital-based healthcare providers participating in an electronic monitoring and feedback program.
Prospective, quasi-experimental study utilizing an interrupted time-series design. Intervention placards depicting an image of eyes, a social norms message, or a control placard were placed near soap and alcohol-based hand-rub dispensers on 2 hospital units. Placards were alternated every 10 days. Hand hygiene opportunities and adherence rates were assessed electronically via the CenTrak Hand Hygiene Compliance Solution.
A total of 166 nurses and certified nursing assistants (74 on a medical-surgical unit and 92 on a progressive care unit) were monitored electronically over the 4-month study period. In total, 184,172 electronic observations were collected (110,903 on a medical-surgical unit and 73,269 on a progressive care unit). The median daily number of electronic observations was 1,471 (interquartile range, 1,337–1,584). The preintervention baseline hand hygiene adherence rate was 70%. No statistically significant increase in hand hygiene adherence was observed as a result of either intervention.
Displaying eye images or a social norms message in the hospital environment did not result in measurable improvements in HH adherence in a cohort of healthcare providers participating in an electronic monitoring and feedback program.
Retention of participants has been an issue in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). It has been suggested that the perceived value of WIC may affect whether participants remain in the programme. The present study aimed to explore this phenomenon.
Using a constructivist approach, thirty-one individual in-depth interviews were conducted. Transcripts were analysed using constant comparative analysis. Social, cultural and environmental factors that contribute to the value of WIC were explored as the phenomenon of interest.
Eight WIC clinics across the State of Illinois, USA.
Thirty-one caregivers of children enrolled in WIC for at least 6 months.
Several factors influenced perceived value of WIC at the interpersonal (level of social support), clinic (value of WIC services v. programme administration issues), vendor (shopping difficulties), community and systems levels (other programme use, stigma and restrictions on food choice). Other themes existed along continua, which overlapped several levels (continuum of perceived need and perceived value of infant formula).
Many caregivers value WIC, especially before their child turns 1 year old. Improvements are needed at the clinic, during shopping and within the food packages themselves in order to increase perceived value of WIC.
Ejaculatory dysfunction obviously becomes important in the younger male when fatherhood is of concern but, even then, its role in fertility is often looked at only as a problem in transport of sperm. The organs involved in the process of ejaculation are the epididymides, vasa deferentia, prostate, seminal vesicles, bladder neck, and bulbourethral glands. Neural control of ejaculation consists of the ejaculatory reflex, which is mediated at the thoracolumbar level and involves a coordinated interaction of the sympathetic and parasympathetic autonomic nervous systems. Premature ejaculation and delayed ejaculation are the two conditions of importance. Men with a nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) will have innervation of the ejaculatory organs, and the stimulation afforded by drug therapy may be enough to allow seminal emission or bladder neck closure. Penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) is usually recommended as the first line of treatment for anejaculation in men with spinal cord injury (SCI).
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