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Described by the TLS as 'a formidable bibliographical achievement … destined to become a key reference work for Shakespeareans', Shakespeare in Print is now issued in a revised and expanded edition offering a wealth of new material, including a chapter which maps the history of digital editions from the earliest computer-generated texts to the very latest digital resources. Murphy's narrative offers a masterful overview of the history of Shakespeare publishing and editing, teasing out the greater cultural significance of the ways in which the plays and poems have been disseminated and received over the centuries from Shakespeare's time to our own. The opening chapters have been completely rewritten to offer close engagement with the careers of the network of publishers and printers who first brought Shakespeare to print, additional material has been added to all chapters, and the chronological appendix has been updated and expanded.
William Penn (1644-1718) – Quaker activist, theorist of liberty of conscience, and colonial founder and proprietor – played a central role in the movement for religious liberty on both sides of the Atlantic for more than four decades. This volume presents, for the first time, a fully annotated scholarly edition of Penn's political writings over the course of his long public career, tracing his thinking from his early theorisation of religious toleration and liberty of conscience in England, as a leading member of the Society of Friends during the 1670s, to his colonial undertaking in Pennsylvania a decade later, his controversial role in the years leading up to the 1688 Revolution, and the ongoing consequences of that Revolution to his future prospects. Penn's political writings provide an illuminating window into the increasingly sophisticated and influential movement for liberty of conscience in the early modern world.
Tax is traditionally viewed as the main funding mechanism for government spending. Consequently, social policy is often seen as something determined and constrained by tax revenue. Modern Monetary Theory (‘MMT’) presents a reversal of the tax-spend cycle, by identifying a spend-tax cycle. Using the UK as an example, we highlight that one of MMT’s most important, but under-explored, contributions is its potential to re-frame the role of tax from both a macroeconomic and social policy perspective. We use insights on the money removal, or cancellation function of taxes, derived from MMT, to demonstrate how this also creates possibilities for using tax to achieve social objectives such as mitigating income and wealth inequality, increasing access to housing, or funding a Green New Deal. For social policy researchers the challenge arising is to use these insights to re-engineer tax systems and redesign social tax expenditures (STEs) for creative social policy purposes.
Via digital and networked media, a volatility of process infuses the world. My argument here is threefold. First, signal (from sunshine to speech to wifi) and code (from the so-called “nature’s code” to alphabets to modern data) have always involved a technical carriage of transformational capacity. At its heart, this involves an attunement – for better or worse – to amodal capacities for affecting and being affected. Second, as the transformational capacity of digital and networked media increases, this pushes the more towards living, thinking, and feeling with the amodal. Third, this opens up a potential infinity of shifting, and more obviously transient modalities. To put this differently, modality needs to be thought as both continuity and novelty at once, in what I will later in this chapter call an a(modal) shimmering.
Anecdotal evidence suggests the use of bolus tube feeding is increasing in the long-term home enteral tube feed (HETF) patients. A cross-sectional survey to assess the prevalence of bolus tube feeding and to characterise these patients was undertaken. Dietitians from ten centres across the UK collected data on all adult HETF patients on the dietetic caseload receiving bolus tube feeding (n 604, 60 % male, age 58 years). Demographic data, reasons for tube and bolus feeding, tube and equipment types, feeding method and patients’ complete tube feeding regimens were recorded. Over a third of patients receiving HETF used bolus feeding (37 %). Patients were long-term tube fed (4·1 years tube feeding, 3·5 years bolus tube feeding), living at home (71 %) and sedentary (70 %). The majority were head and neck cancer patients (22 %) who were significantly more active (79 %) and lived at home (97 %), while those with cerebral palsy (12 %) were typically younger (age 31 years) but sedentary (94 %). Most patients used bolus feeding as their sole feeding method (46 %), because it was quick and easy to use, as a top-up to oral diet or to mimic mealtimes. Importantly, oral nutritional supplements (ONS) were used for bolus feeding in 85 % of patients, with 51 % of these being compact-style ONS (2·4 kcal (10·0 kJ)/ml, 125 ml). This survey shows that bolus tube feeding is common among UK HETF patients, is used by a wide variety of patient groups and can be adapted to meet the needs of a variety of patients, clinical conditions, nutritional requirements and lifestyles.
Already a noted theorist and agitator on behalf of religious toleration in England when he turned his attention to American colonization, William Penn (1644–1718) played a central role in the development of liberty of conscience as a fundamental element of legitimate government. This chapter explores the foundations of Penn’s understanding of liberty of conscience and the important role he saw it playing as a foundational social, political, and legal principle. After an overview of Penn’s life and career, the focus turns to Penn’s role in the tolerationist movement during the 1670s in England and the main components of his theory as it developed over the course of his public career; his defense of representative institutions like juries and Parliament; his understanding of fundamental law; and his defense of “civil interest” as a social bond for uniting a religiously-diverse population like England and, later, Pennsylvania. The chapter concludes with a brief examination of the founding documents and early history of Penn’s colony.
There is a growing population of ageing individuals living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Older adults living with HIV often contend with intersecting stigmas including HIV stigma, ageism and, for some, homonegativity and/or racism. Although the HIV stigma literature is quite robust, research on the relationship between HIV stigma, social support and mental wellbeing among older adults living with HIV is limited. This study begins to address this gap by examining how intersectional stigma affects social support and mental wellbeing among rural-dwelling older adults living with HIV. Qualitative interviews were conducted by phone with 29 older adults living with HIV, over the age of 50, living in rural areas of the United States of America. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic content analysis in MAXQDA qualitative analysis software. Analysis revealed three primary themes. The first had to do with gossip and non-disclosure of HIV status, which intersected with ageism and homonegativity to exacerbate experiences that fell within the remaining themes of experiences of physical and psychological isolation and loneliness, and shame and silence surrounding depression. The prevalence of social isolation and the effects of limited social support among older adults living with HIV are prominent and indicate a need for tailored interventions within the HIV care continuum for older adults living with HIV.
Objectives: Down syndrome (DS) is a population with known hippocampal impairment, with studies showing that individuals with DS display difficulties in spatial navigation and remembering arbitrary bindings. Recent research has also demonstrated the importance of the hippocampus for novel word-learning. Based on these data, we aimed to determine whether individuals with DS show deficits in learning new labels and if they may benefit from encoding conditions thought to be less reliant on hippocampal function (i.e., through fast mapping). Methods: In the current study, we examined immediate, 5-min, and 1-week delayed word-learning across two learning conditions (e.g., explicit encoding vs. fast mapping). These conditions were examined across groups (twenty-six 3- to 5-year-old typically developing children and twenty-six 11- to 28-year-old individuals with DS with comparable verbal and nonverbal scores on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test – second edition) and in reference to sleep quality. Results: Both individuals with and without DS showed retention after a 1-week delay, and the current study found no benefit of the fast mapping condition in either group contrary to our expectations. Eye tracking data showed that preferential eye movements to target words were not present immediately but emerged after 1-week in both groups. Furthermore, sleep measures collected via actigraphy did not relate to retention in either group. Conclusions: This study presents novel data on long-term knowledge retention in reference to sleep patterns in DS and adds to a body of knowledge helping us to understand the processes of word-learning in typical and atypically developing populations. (JINS, 2018, 24, 955–965)