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To identify latent trajectories of IQ over time after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) and examine the predictive value of risk factors within and across recovery trajectories.
206 children ages 3–7 years at injury were included: 87 TBI (23 severe, 21 moderate, 43 complicated mild) and 119 orthopedic injury (OI). We administered intelligence tests shortly after injury (1½ months), 12 months, and 6.8 years postinjury. Latent class growth modeling was used to identify latent subgroups. Separate models examined verbal and nonverbal IQ recovery trajectories following TBI versus OI. Variables included: age at injury, sex, race, socioeconomic status, injury severity, quality of the home environment, family functioning, and parenting style.
Both the TBI and OI analyses yielded different growth models for nonverbal (k = 3) and verbal IQ (k = 3). Although all models resulted in 3 latent classes (below average, average, and aboveaverage performance); trajectory shapes, contributors to class membership, and performance within each class varied by injury group and IQ domain. TBI severity was associated with class membership for nonverbal IQ, with less severe injuries associated with higher IQ scores; however, TBI severity did not influence verbal IQ class membership. Parenting style had a more prominent effect on verbal and nonverbal IQ within the TBI than OI trajectories.
Findings suggest TBI severity is related to recovery trajectories for nonverbal but not verbal IQ and parenting style has stronger effects on recovery in TBI than OI. Results highlight the importance of parental factors on long-term recovery after TBI.
Cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring has been used to identify the lower limit of pressure autoregulation in adult patients with brain injury. We hypothesise that impaired cerebrovascular reactivity and time spent below the lower limit of autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass will result in hypoperfusion injuries to the brain detectable by elevation in serum glial fibrillary acidic protein level.
We designed a multicentre observational pilot study combining concurrent cerebrovascular reactivity and biomarker monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass. All children undergoing bypass for CHD were eligible. Autoregulation was monitored with the haemoglobin volume index, a moving correlation coefficient between the mean arterial blood pressure and the near-infrared spectroscopy-based trend of cerebral blood volume. Both haemoglobin volume index and glial fibrillary acidic protein data were analysed by phases of bypass. Each patient’s autoregulation curve was analysed to identify the lower limit of autoregulation and optimal arterial blood pressure.
A total of 57 children had autoregulation and biomarker data for all phases of bypass. The mean baseline haemoglobin volume index was 0.084. Haemoglobin volume index increased with lowering of pressure with 82% demonstrating a lower limit of autoregulation (41±9 mmHg), whereas 100% demonstrated optimal blood pressure (48±11 mmHg). There was a significant association between an individual’s peak autoregulation and biomarker values (p=0.01).
Individual, dynamic non-invasive cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring demonstrated transient periods of impairment related to possible silent brain injury. The association between an impaired autoregulation burden and elevation in the serum brain biomarker may identify brain perfusion risk that could result in injury.
Advancements in paediatric heart failure management have resulted in improved survival and a focus on long-term outcomes including health-related quality of life. We compared health-related quality of life in children with heart failure with healthy patients, children with chronic conditions, and children with cardiovascular disease.
Families (n=63) and children (n=73) aged 2–20 years with heart failure were enrolled and compared with data previously published for healthy patients (n=5480), those with chronic conditions (n=247), and those with cardiovascular disease (n=347). Patients and parents completed the PedsQL 4.0 and the Cardiac 3.0 Module health-related quality-of-life questionnaires. PedsQL scores including Total, Psychosocial Health Summary, and Physical were compared between groups. In general, patients with heart failure had lower scores than the healthy population (p=0.001), and comparable scores with those with chronic conditions. Parents perceived no difference in physical scores for children with heart failure when compared with healthy children, and perceived higher scores for children with heart failure when compared with those with chronic conditions (p⩽0.003). Furthermore, children with heart failure had decremental health-related quality-of-life scores as the American Heart Association stage of heart failure increased, such that patients with stage C heart failure had scores similar to children with severe cardiovascular disease.
Children with heart failure reported significantly impaired health-related quality of life compared with healthy children and similar scores compared with children with chronic conditions. Parental perceptions appear to underestimate these impairments. Children with heart failure appear to have progressive impairment of health-related quality of life with advancing stage of heart failure.
Our purpose was to review the literature with respect to issues of adherence to treatment among children with congenital and acquired cardiac disease.
Materials and Methods
Databases used for this review included MEDLINE, Pub Med’s Single Citation Manager, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and Google Scholar. We did not use any restrictions on date when locating peer-reviewed articles published worldwide through December of 2008.
There exists a lack of published research regarding adherence to medical treatment for children with cardiac conditions. Of the few published studies, rates of adherence for children with congenital and acquired cardiac disease ranged from a high of 96% for an in-patient exercise programme, to a low of 33% among those who made all of their medical appointments. Risk factors for nonadherence included older age, one as opposed to two parents in the home, lack of emotional availability of parents, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, use of illicit drugs, presence of tattoos, and multiple body piercings. Clinical outcomes associated with non adherence in the population of children undergoing transplantation included mortality, acute episodes of rejection, lower levels of Cyclosporine A, and lower values for the International Normalised Ratio of prothrombin.
For children with congenital and acquired heart disease, the challenges of adherence to treatment can often be overwhelming. Recommendations designed to maximize the impact and scientific rigour of future studies include obtaining quantitative and qualitative measures of adherence, identifying primary and secondary endpoints, emphasizing factors of interest, planning studies with sufficient power to impact on the adherence to treatment, and developing epidemiologic foundations.
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