The peacock-tail shrimp Ancylocaris brevicarpalis Schenkel, 1902, is an obligate symbiont of sea anemones and well known for its remarkable colouration. Yet, very little information is available about its population structure and life-history traits, including reproductive parameters (fecundity, embryo volume and reproductive output). A total of 574 individuals were collected from the Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India between February 2017 and July 2018, out of which 214 were males (37.28%), 355 were females (61.84%), and 5 (0.87%) juveniles. The highest percentage of individuals were observed in the post-monsoon season (38.10%) followed by monsoon (34.85%), pre-monsoon (15.02%), and summer seasons (12.01%). The overall sex ratio was skewed towards female individuals (0.55 male: 1 female). Fecundity was higher in females carrying early-stage embryos and embryo volume did increase, but not statistically significantly from early to late stages. The reproductive output was negatively allometric to the mean female body weight. The present study provides first-of-its-kind information on the population as well as individual-level reproductive characteristics of A. brevicarpalis.