The new species Coniarthonia aurata E. L. Lima, M. Cáceres & Aptroot, Cresponea endosulphurea A. A. Menezes, M. Cáceres & Aptroot, Cryptothecia macrocephala E. L. Lima, M. Cáceres & Aptroot, and Synarthonia sarcographoides Aptroot, A. A. Menezes, E. L. Lima & M. Cáceres are described from Caatinga vegetation in NE Brazil. They were found in the Chapada do Araripe in the state of Ceará and/or the Vale do Catimbau National Park in Pernambuco. Coniarthonia aurata has weakly organized, semiglobose apothecia with golden crystals, and on first impression looks like the anamorph of a Tylophoron. Cresponea endosulphurea has a pigment of the group of xantholepinones in the thallus. It is the first time that a substance from this group is reported from the Arthoniales. Cryptothecia macrocephala has strongly macrocephalic ascospores and contains psoromic acid in the thallus. Synarthonia sarcographoides is only the third species in this rarely found genus. It is characterized within the genus by muriform, brown ascospores, but it is assigned with hesitation to the genus. It is locally quite common.