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To assess agreement between established methods of estimating salt intake from spot urine collections and 24 h urinary Na (24hUNa) and then to develop a valid formula that can be used in the Iranian population to estimate salt intake from spot urine samples.
A validation study. Three spot urine samples were collected (fasting second-void morning; afternoon; evening) on the same day as a 24 h urine collection. We estimated 24hUNa from spot specimens using the Kawasaki, Tanaka and INTERSALT equations. Two new formulas were developed, the Iran formula 1 (Iran 1) and Iran formula 2 (Iran 2), based on our population characteristics.
Iranian adults recruited in 2014–2015.
Healthy volunteer adults aged ≥18 years.
With all three spot urine specimens, predicted population 24hUNa was underestimated based on the INTERSALT equation (−469 to −708 mg/d; all P < 0·05) and conversely overestimation occurred with the Kawasaki equation (926 to 1080 mg/d; all P < 0·01). The Tanaka equation produced comparable estimates to measured 24hUNa (–151 to 86 mg/d; all P > 0·49). The newly derived formulas, Iran 1 and Iran 2, showed less mean bias than the established equations (Iran 1: 43 to 80 mg/d, all P > 0·55; Iran 2: 22 to 90 mg/d, all P > 0·50).
In this Iranian sample, the Tanaka equation and newly derived formulas produced group-level estimates comparable to measured 24hUNa. The newly developed formulas showed less mean bias than established equations; however, they need to be tested for generalization in a larger sample.
The aim of the present study was to develop reference data for the Iranian population for anthropometric values and cardiometabolic data in comparison with those in Americans, as representative of a Western population.
The present cross-sectional survey, conducted as part of the baseline survey of a community-based interventional study (the Isfahan Healthy Heart Programme), used a two-stage clustering design and was conducted in 12 600 randomly selected adults (≥19 years of age) and 2000 adolescents (aged 11–18 years) living in three cities in the central part of Iran. For comparison with a Western population, comparable data for Americans were derived from the data sets of the Second and Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES II and NHANES III).
Iranian women had significantly higher mean BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and waist:hip ratio (WHR) than Iranian men and American women; but the mean BMI of Iranian men was lower than that of American men. The mean serum TAG level of Iranian men was significantly higher than that of Iranian women, whereas the mean serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were significantly higher in Iranian women than in men. The Iranian population had lower mean TC, LDL-C and TAG levels than the Americans, but such difference was not documented for HDL-C. Iranian adolescents had significantly lower mean BMI and higher mean TAG than did American adolescents.
Our findings provide serious evidence for health professionals and policy makers about the very high prevalence of generalized and abdominal obesity in Iran. Controlling this emerging health problem, notably in women, should become a national priority in Iran and necessitates comprehensive public health programmes.
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