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The anabolic effects of androgen on skeletal muscles are thought to be mediated by androgen receptor (AR). Although multiple studies concerning the effects of AR in males have been performed, the molecular mechanisms of AR in skeletal muscles remain unclear. Here we first confirmed that satellite cells from mouse hindlimb muscles express AR. We then generated satellite cell-specific AR knockout mice using Pax7CreERT2 and ARL2/Y mice to test whether AR in satellite cells is necessary for muscle regeneration. Surprisingly, we found that muscle regeneration was compromised in both Pax7CreERT2(Fan)/+ control mice and Pax7CreERT2(Fan)/+;ARL2/Y mice compared to ARL2/Y mice. However, Pax7CreERT2(Gaka)/+;ARL2/Y;R26tdTomato/+ mice showed no significant differences between control and mutant muscle regeneration. These findings indicate that AR in satellite cells is not essential for muscle regeneration. We propose that Pax7CreERT2(Fan)/+ control mice should be included in all experiments, because these mice negatively affect the muscle regeneration and show the mild regeneration phenotype.
Solid solution softening and the orientation dependence of yield stress can be regarded as the two most important phenomena characterizing the low temperature plastic deformation of b.c.c. metals. Recently, the orientation dependence of solid solution softening was reported in electron irradiated pure iron in which self-interstitial atoms simulate the solid solution effect. Single crystals oriented for the hard (112) slip showed the largest softening effect and became the softest crystals after irradiation (Fig. 1). Also, the shape of the stress-strain curve for the irradiation-softened crystal suggests that the irradiation may have influenced the dislocation structure at an early stage of deformation. Specimens oriented for the soft (211) slip showed hardly any effect. In this study, the dislocation structure was investigated to determine the mechanism responsible for the softening effect and the orientation dependence.
The linear MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) stability for high beta plasmas in the inward shifted Large Helical Device (LHD) configurations has been investigated for a wide range of magnetic Reynolds numbers
using numerical simulations based on the kinetic MHD model with kinetic thermal ions where the beta is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic pressure. It is found that the dependence of the linear growth rate of the resistive ballooning modes on the
number changes from
by the kinetic thermal ion effects so that the resistive ballooning modes are significantly suppressed as the
number increases. For a high
number comparable to experimental values, the most unstable modes are interchange modes. The kinetic thermal ion effects change the most unstable interchange mode from the ideal mode to the resistive mode. This transition of the interchange modes by kinetic thermal ion effects is consistent with the shift of the marginal stability boundary for the ideal interchange modes observed in the LHD experiments.
The efficiency of in vitro embryo production technologies would be improved by the development of suitable non-invasive biomarkers that allow the selection of good quality cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs). The present study used whole, single oocyte culture to investigate whether the expression levels of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), insulin-like factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) and three steroidogenesis-related enzymes (CYP11al, CYP19al and HSD3β) in cumulus cells reflected the developmental competence of COCs. Cumulus cells were collected from single COCs before maturation culture and relative mRNA levels were assessed using real-time PCR. The analysis indicated that mRNAs for FSHR, IGF1R, CYP11al and HSD3β were present at higher levels in cumulus cells from COCs that failed to form blastocysts compared with cumulus cells from COCs that formed blastocysts. Moreover, FSHR and IGF1R mRNA levels were positively correlated with those of genes for steroidogenesis-related enzymes. In conclusion, poor developmental competence of COCs was related to higher expression of FSHR, IGF1R, CYP11al and HSD3β in cumulus cells, which may indicate the advanced differentiation of cumulus cells into granulosa cells.
Maternal diet during pregnancy can influence fetal growth; however, the available evidence is controversial. We aimed to assess whether maternal diet of Japanese women in mid-pregnancy can affect their offspring’s birth size via collection of questionnaire and medical record data. The studied sample was a large cohort of paired mothers and their singleton offspring (n 78 793) from fifteen areas all over Japan who participated in the Japan Environment and Children’s Study. The mid-pregnancy intakes of total energy, macronutrients and vitamins were lower than the recommended intakes for pregnant Japanese women. Maternal total energy intake was positively associated with the offspring’s birth weight; there was a 10-g mean difference in the offspring’s birth weight of mothers in the lowest (3026 g) v. highest (3036 g) quartiles of energy intake. Carbohydrate intake was positively associated with the offspring’s birth length (mean difference of 0·7 cm) and inversely associated with the ponderal index (mean difference of 0·8 g/cm3). Offspring of mothers in the highest v. lowest quartiles of total dietary fibre intake were on average 9 g heavier and had 0·3 cm longer birth length and 0·2 cm longer head circumference. The highest in reference to lowest intake quartile of vitamin C was associated with 13 g and 0·7 cm mean differences in the offspring’s birth weight and length, respectively. Several other associations were evident for maternal intakes of vitamins and the offspring’s birth size. In conclusion, maternal dietary intakes of energy, dietary fibre, carbohydrate and vitamins during pregnancy were associated with the offspring’s birth size.
Studies on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pneumococcal pneumonia (PP) related to the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) introduction in Asia are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and microbiological determinants of hospitalised CAP and PP after PCV13 was introduced in Japan. This observational hospital-based surveillance study included children aged ⩽15 years, admitted to hospitals in and around Chiba City, Japan. Participants had bacterial pneumonia based on a positive blood or sputum culture for bacterial pathogens. Serotype and antibiotic-susceptibility testing of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolates from patients with bacterial pneumonia were assessed. The CAP hospitalisation rate per 1000 child-years was 17.7, 14.3 and 9.7 in children aged <5 years and 1.18, 2.64 and 0.69 in children aged 5–15 years in 2008, 2012 and 2018, respectively. There was a 45% and 41% reduction in CAP hospitalisation rates, between the pre-PCV7 and PCV13 periods, respectively. Significant reductions occurred in the proportion of CAP due to PP and PCV13 serotypes. Conversely, no change occurred in the proportion of CAP caused by H. influenzae. The incidence of hospitalised CAP in children aged ⩽15 years was significantly reduced after the introduction of PCV13 in Japan. Continuous surveillance is necessary to detect emerging PP serotypes.
Attention bias (AB) is a biased information processing towards threat among competing stimuli occurred in early stage of sensory input. Substantial evidence indicates that AB is involved in the development and maintenance of anxiety and depressive disorders. However, little is known about the relationships between AB and individual differences of endocrine and neuropsychological functions.
Thirty healthy participants without major physical illness or axis I/II mental disorders as evaluated with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, were enrolled. Participants completed a dot-probe task, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure, and the Trail Making Test (TMT). Salivary cortisol levels were measured at three time points per day for consecutive 2 days: immediately and 30 min after awaking in the morning and before sleep at night. Correlation analyses were performed between AB and psychological measures, cortisol levels, and attention measures.
As predicted, AB significantly correlated with BDI-II and Harm avoidance sub-dimension of the TCI. Above all, when those variables that were significantly correlated with AB were included in a step-wise multivariate regression analysis, higher cortisol level at night remained the most influential predictor for AB.
Our results suggest that AB is significantly influenced not only by anxious personality traits and depressive symptoms but also by individual differences of attention function and stress hormonal levels. Particularly, AB modification approach might have a beneficial effect on anxiety in individuals who have high cortisol levels.
Catatonia is a complication of bipolar disorder, which is a constellation of symptoms such as catalepsy, mutism, and stupor. Standard therapy for catatonia contains benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy. An uncomplicated catatonia is usually a benign condition. On the other hand, malignant catatonia is a life-threatening condition that is complicated with fever, autonomic instability, delirium, and rigidity. The syndrome is typically fulminant and progresses rapidly within a few days without appropriate intervention. Several previous reports suggested that some catatonia are associated with the overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and that amantadine may have an effectiveness for catatonia, as a NMDA receptor antagonist. We report a case of successful treatment for malignant catatonia refractory to benzodiazepines, by using amantadine.
Materials and methods/case
A 64-year-old Japanese woman with bipolar disorder was referred to our hospital because of 8-week prolonged fever. On admission, she was in febrile and stuporous states. Severe rigidity was observed in her extremities. Blood tests, lumbar puncture, and blood cultures were all negative. Brain MRI was normal. Consequently, we reached a diagnosis of malignant catatonia, and thus we gave additional benzodiazepines for her catatonic symptoms. However, there was no improvement, and we finally add a 50 mg/day amantadine for her malignant catatonic state.
Her fever resolved in a few days. Gradual dose-titration of amantadine led her clinical manifestation to completely disappeared.
Amantadine can be a potential option as one of the pharmacological therapies for refractory malignant catatonia.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
This study aims to create controlled fine space by electrospinning, and to develop the electrode materials for high-performance energy devices. With the popularization of mobile devices, household appliances, hybrid vehicles, electric vehicles, and the like, the use of power storage devices is expanding, and further performance improvements are required. In this study, a novel electrode material was developed by compositing Si with carbon nanofibers derived from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) by electrospinning and heat treatment. The texture and structure of the nanofibers were observed and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with image processing. Nano spaces were created in the CNFs and Si particles were able to be contained in the CNFs. In the second and subsequent cycles of the charge/discharge experiments of lithium ion battery (LIB) electrode made from the materials, the capacity was more than twice the theoretical capacity using graphite, and good cycle performance was obtained.
Development of high-efficiency solar cell modules and new application fields are significant for the further development of photovoltaics (PV) and creation of new clean energy infrastructure based on PV. Especially, development of PV-powered EV applications is desirable and very important for this end. This paper shows analytical results for efficiency potential of various solar cells for choosing candidates of high-efficiency solar cell modules for automobile applications. As a result of analysis, Si tandem solar cells are thought to be some of their candidates. This paper also overviews efficiency potential and recent activities of various Si tandem solar cells such as III-V/Si, II-VI/Si, chalcopyrite/Si, perovskite/Si and nanowire/Si tandem solar cells. The III-V/Si tandem solar cells are expected to have a high potential for various applications because of high efficiency with efficiencies of more than 36% for 2-junction and 42 % for 3-junction tandem solar cells under 1-sun AM1.5 G, lightweight and low-cost potential. Recent results for our 28.2 % efficiency and Sharp’s 33% mechanically stacked InGaP/GaAs/Si 3-junction solar cell are also presented. Approaches to automobile application by using III-V/Si tandem solar cells and static low concentration are presented.
The myxozoan genus Unicapsula Davis, 1924 (Myxosporea: Multivalvulida: Trilosporidae) is characterized as having one functional polar capsule (PC) and two rudimentary PCs in a three-valved myxospore. The plasmodia of Unicapsula spp. grow either in the myofibres or in the gills, oesophageal walls and urinary organs of marine fish. Few studies have investigated the taxonomy of Unicapsula spp. including the type species Unicapsula muscularis. Accordingly, the taxonomy of the genus was explored in the present study by using 15 new isolates of seven Unicapsula spp. (U. muscularis, U. galeata, U. andersenae, U. pyramidata, U. pflugfelderi, and two new species) that had formed pseudocysts in the trunk myofibres of commercial fish collected in southern China and Japan from November 2015 to January 2019. Two new species Unicapsula trigona n. sp., and Unicapsula motomurai n. sp. exhibited unique myxospore morphologies (semi-triangular and spherical myxospores, respectively) and 18S and 28S rDNA sequences that were distinct from those of the other Unicapsula spp. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S and 28S rDNA sequences confirmed the monophyletic status of Unicapsula.
Mental disorders can have a major impact on brain development. Peripheral blood concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are lower in adult psychiatric disorders. Serum BDNF concentrations and BDNF genotype have been associated with cortical maturation in children and adolescents. In 2 large independent samples, this study tests associations between serum BDNF concentrations, brain structure, and psychopathology, and the effects of BDNF genotype on BDNF serum concentrations in late childhood and early adolescence.
Children and adolescents (7-14 years old) from 2 cities (n = 267 in Porto Alegre; n = 273 in São Paulo) were evaluated as part of the Brazilian high-risk cohort (HRC) study. Serum BDNF concentrations were quantified by sandwich ELISA. Genotyping was conducted from blood or saliva samples using the SNParray Infinium HumanCore Array BeadChip. Subcortical volumes and cortical thickness were quantified using FreeSurfer. The Development and Well-Being Behavior Assessment was used to identify the presence of a psychiatric disorder.
Serum BDNF concentrations were not associated with subcortical volumes or with cortical thickness. Serum BDNF concentration did not differ between participants with and without mental disorders, or between Val homozygotes and Met carriers.
No evidence was found to support serum BDNF concentrations as a useful marker of developmental differences in brain and behavior in early life. Negative findings were replicated in 2 of the largest independent samples investigated to date.
A systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) were conducted to address the question, ‘What is the efficacy of litter management strategies to reduce morbidity, mortality, condemnation at slaughter, or total antibiotic use in broilers?’ Eligible studies were clinical trials published in English evaluating the efficacy of litter management in broilers on morbidity, condemnations at slaughter, mortality, or total antibiotic use. Multiple databases and two conference proceedings were searched for relevant literature. After relevance screening and data extraction, there were 50 trials evaluating litter type, 22 trials evaluating litter additives, 10 trials comparing fresh to re-used litter, and six trials evaluating floor type. NMAs were conducted for mortality (61 trials) and for the presence or absence of footpad lesions (15 trials). There were no differences in mortality among the litter types, floor types, or additives. For footpad lesions, peat moss appeared beneficial compared to straw, based on a small number of comparisons. In a pairwise meta-analysis, there was no association between fresh versus used litter on the risk of mortality, although there was considerable heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 66%). There was poor reporting of key design features in many studies, and analyses rarely accounted for non-independence of observations within flocks.
The Palaeolithic–Neolithic transition in East Asia is characterised by the transformation of mobile hunter-gatherer groups into sedentary communities. The existence of ‘ice-age’ pottery in the Japanese archipelago, however, is inconsistent with claims that directly link climatic warming with sedentism and the development of ceramics. Here, the authors reconsider the chronology and palaeoenvironment of the Maedakochi site in Tokyo. New AMS dating and environmental data suggest that intensified inland fishing in cold environments, immediately prior to the Late Glacial warm period, created conditions conducive to sedentism and the development of subsistence-related pottery.
We identified a waterborne pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium chimaera in our stem cell transplantation center, which likely resulted from biofilm on the aerators of the handwashing machines in each patient’s room. Regular replacement of faucet parts can prevent biofilm formation and pseudo-outbreaks of M. chimaera through aerators.