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This paper is a first detailed contribution to the knowledge of serpulid diversity from marine caves of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. A total of 27 taxa were recorded in two submerged caves of Lesvos Island, in the Aegean Sea. A clear trend of variability was observed with serpulid abundance, specifically that of sciaphilic and deep-sea species, increasing inwards while the number of taxa and species diversity did not change significantly across the two caves. In the innermost sectors of the studied caves two types of bioconstructions were observed: (a) ‘coiled doughnuts’ of Protula, recorded for the first time in Mediterranean caves; and (b) ‘biostalactites’ mainly consisting of skeletal metazoans recorded for the first time from the eastern Mediterranean. The results of the present study revealed new faunal elements and type of bioconstructions for the Mediterranean marine caves, showing that several aspects of their communities are still poorly known and deserve to be further investigated.
Written with the busy practice in mind, this book delivers clinically focused, evidence-based gynecology guidance in a quick-reference format. It explores etiology, screening, tests, diagnosis, and treatment for a full range of gynecologic health issues. The coverage includes the full range of gynecologic malignancies, reproductive endocrinology and infertility, infectious diseases, urogynecologic problems, gynecologic concerns in children and adolescents, and surgical interventions including minimally invasive surgical procedures. Information is easy to find and absorb owing to the extensive use of full-color diagrams, algorithms, and illustrations. The new edition has been expanded to include aspects of gynecology important in international and resource-poor settings.
Twin studies are extremely useful for investigating hypotheses of genetic influence on a range of behavioral and physical traits in humans. Studies of physical traits, however, are usually limited to size-related biological characteristics because it is inherently difficult to quantify the morphological counterpart – shape. In recent years, the development of geometry-preserving analytical techniques built upon multivariate statistical methodologies has produced a new discipline in biological shape analysis known as geometric morphometrics. In this study of hand shape analysis, we introduce the reader already familiar with the field of twin research to the potential utility of geometric morphometrics and demonstrate the cross-discipline applicability of methods. We also investigate and compare the efficacy of the 2D:4D ratio, a commonly used marker of sexual dimorphism, to the fully multivariate approach of shape analysis in discriminating between male and female sex. Studies of biological shape variation utilizing geometric morphometric techniques may be completed with software freely available on the Internet and time invested to master the small learning curve in concepts and theory.
Strabismus represents a complex oculomotor disorder characterized by the deviation of one or both eyes and poor vision. A more sophisticated understanding of the genetic liability of strabismus is required to guide searches for associated molecular variants. In this classical twin study of 1,462 twin pairs, we examined the relative influence of genes and environment in comitant strabismus, and the degree to which these influences can be explained by factors in common with refractive error. Participants were examined for the presence of latent (‘phoria’) and manifest (‘tropia’) strabismus using cover–uncover and alternate cover tests. Two phenotypes were distinguished: eso-deviation (esophoria and esotropia) and exo-deviation (exophoria and exotropia). Structural equation modeling was subsequently employed to partition the observed phenotypic variation in the twin data into specific variance components. The prevalence of eso-deviation and exo-deviation was 8.6% and 20.7%, respectively. For eso-deviation, the polychoric correlation was significantly greater in monozygotic (MZ) (r = 0.65) compared to dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs (r = 0.33), suggesting a genetic role (p = .003). There was no significant difference in polychoric correlation between MZ (r = 0.55) and DZ twin pairs (r = 0.53) for exo-deviation (p = .86), implying that genetic factors do not play a significant role in the etiology of exo-deviation. The heritability of an eso-deviation was 0.64 (95% CI 0.50–0.75). The additive genetic correlation for eso-deviation and refractive error was 0.13 and the bivariate heritability (i.e., shared variance) was less than 1%, suggesting negligible shared genetic effect. This study documents a substantial heritability of 64% for eso-deviation, yet no corresponding heritability for exo-deviation, suggesting that the genetic contribution to strabismus may be specific to eso-deviation. Future studies are now needed to identify the genes associated with eso-deviation and unravel their mechanisms of action.
In this paper we address the subject of Keynes as a speculator. We look first at the primary sources of information, which are in the form of unpublished letters and broker’s statements. Secondly, we look at the theory Keynes sparingly presented in his writings, but which nevertheless is grounded on his first-hand knowledge of speculative behavior. Thirdly, we examine the focus on speculation in commodities, which had great weight in his portfolio, and have chosen a particular commodity -wheat- for our investigation. In particular, we examine some of Keynes’s dealings in wheat futures with the aim of shedding light on the underlying investment strategy.