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In a poem setting forth the way things are in nature, it is fitting for Lucretius to address, among many other phenomena, human conception and embryonic determination. With an eye toward ethics, Lucretius demonstrates how sexual reproduction at the seminal level can be explained by Epicurean atomism. In this paper, I am concerned with the biological ‘how’ of conception as explained in De Rerum Natura (= DRN) but also with the ethical ‘therefore’ for Lucretius’ readership and (over)estimations of male autonomy. For modern audiences with a basic grasp of procreation that includes sperm supplied by a male and egg supplied by a female, encountering Lucretius’ verses on women contributing semen (semina) to the process of conception can be surprising (4.1209–62). The idea of female semen may give us pause as we calibrate it with our understanding of eggs and ovulation, but Lucretius, in his time, was not advancing some novel theory. Wading into established debates on male-only or joint male-female semen production and gendered insemination (that is, who produces semen and whose semen is active at conception), Lucretius sides with those promulgating mutuality for both questions (for example Democritus [DK 24 A13]) and rejects Aristotle's representative exclusivist claim of male activity vs female passivity (τὸ ἄρρεν ἐστὶν ὡς κινοῦν καὶ ποιοῦν, τὸ δὲ θῆλυ ὡς παθητικόν, Gen. an. 729a28–30; cf. 726a30–6). That is to say, a sexually mature female, like her male counterpart, emits semen that has determining potency in the formation of a human embryo (Lucr. 4.1209–62). Although the discharge and activity of female semen is the focus of this paper, my investigation is not a Quellenforschung or historical survey of Greco-Roman ideas about women's contributions to insemination and fertility, since others have treated these matters extensively. I concentrate rather on how Lucretius employs the concept of female semen in terms of his poetics in Book 4 and what I see as an ethical argument against the domineering nature of Roman masculinity. The problem of female semen, from the point of view of Lucretius’ Roman male audience, is that it is potentially costly to men because it rivals and threatens their status from the physiological to the discursive level. Iain Lonie broaches the same issue from Greek perspectives.
What does the rise and election of Donald J. Trump as president mean for the future of conservatism? Republican elites continue to argue about whether Trump is changing the definition of conservatism for better or worse, although many Republicans seem content to let him shape the issues, direction, and brand of the traditional party of conservatism. We examine the ideological characteristics of different groups of Republican voters across three types of ideology: symbolic, operational, and conceptual. We find distinct differences between Republicans who consistently supported Trump and other groups that either supported him in the general election only and those who never supported him. The Never Trump camp stands out as a group that is less symbolically and operationally conservative but also better able to articulate what it means to be a conservative than do Trump’s core supporters, who look very much the opposite. These results suggest a contemporary Republican Party that is far from unified in what it means to be a conservative.
New radiocarbon (14C) dates suggest a simultaneous appearance of two technologically and geographically distinct axe production practices in Neolithic Britain; igneous open-air quarries in Great Langdale, Cumbria, and from flint mines in southern England at ~4000–3700 cal BC. In light of the recent evidence that farming was introduced at this time by large-scale immigration from northwest Europe, and that expansion within Britain was extremely rapid, we argue that this synchronicity supports this speed of colonization and reflects a knowledge of complex extraction processes and associated exchange networks already possessed by the immigrant groups; long-range connections developed as colonization rapidly expanded. Although we can model the start of these new extraction activities, it remains difficult to estimate how long significant production activity lasted at these key sites given the nature of the record from which samples could be obtained.
We illustrate the extraordinary potential of the (far-IR) Origins Survey Spectrometer (OSS) on board the Origins Space Telescope (OST) to address a variety of open issues on the co-evolution of galaxies and AGNs. We present predictions for blind surveys, each of 1000 h, with different mapped areas (a shallow survey covering an area of 10 deg2 and a deep survey of 1 deg2) and two different concepts of the OST/OSS: with a 5.9 m telescope (Concept 2, our reference configuration) and with a 9.1 m telescope (Concept 1, previous configuration). In 1 000 h, surveys with the reference concept will detect from ∼1.9×106 to ∼8.7×106 lines from ∼4.8×105 to 2.7×106 star-forming galaxies and from ∼1.4×104 to ∼3.8×104 lines from ∼1.3×104 to 3.5×104 AGNs. The shallow survey will detect substantially more sources than the deep one; the advantage of the latter in pushing detections to lower luminosities/higher redshifts turns out to be quite limited. The OST/OSS will reach, in the same observing time, line fluxes more than one order of magnitude fainter than the SPICA/SMI and will cover a much broader redshift range. In particular it will detect tens of thousands of galaxies at z ≥ 5, beyond the reach of that instrument. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons lines are potentially bright enough to allow the detection of hundreds of thousands of star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 8.5, i.e. all the way through the reionisation epoch. The proposed surveys will allow us to explore the galaxy–AGN co-evolution up to z ∼ 5.5−6 with very good statistics. OST Concept 1 does not offer significant advantages for the scientific goals presented here.
The recent publication of Diversas rimas by Vicente Espinel, based on the unique edition prepared by the poet himself and published in 1591, should rekindle interest in one of the most versatile talents and celebrated personalities of the late Renaissance in Spain. An Andalusian by birth—he was born in Ronda in 1550—Espinel displayed abundantly the ardent temperament and innate artistic gifts so frequent in the natives of this warm and sensuous yet strangely mysterious and ancient land. Furthermore a keen intellect directed these natural talents to make of him in his mature years one of the most respected critics as well as one of the most admired poets and musicians of his day.
This essay explores the impact of the First Red Scare on immigrant populations, focusing on the function that detentions, deportations, and attempted deportations occupied within the broader antiradical politics of the period. I assert that deportations were far more than an instrumentalist tactic of the Red Scare, but instead, were part of a much longer trajectory of expanding anti-immigrant enforcement and the postentry social control of foreign-born residents. Antiradical raids during the era have held a prominent place in the scholarly imagination, which has remained overly constrained by the exceptionalist and episodic narratives put forth by its earliest historians. I trace the evolution of scholarship on the Red Scare's temporal boundaries, the motivations for targeting immigrants, and the debates over how radical a rupture this period represented from earlier practices of antiradicalism and anti-immigrant politics. In doing so, I argue that Red Scare deportations must be understood in relationship to the broader deportation practices of the period and the rapid (and more consistent) growth of removals instigated because of racialized criteria of poverty, crime, health, or violations of an ever-stricter border regime.
Are people conservative (liberal) because they are Republicans
(Democrats)? Or is it the reverse: people are Republicans
(Democrats) because they are conservatives (liberals)? Though much
has been said about this long-standing question, it is difficult to
test because the concepts are nearly impossible to disentangle in
modern America. Ideology and partisanship are highly correlated,
only growing more so over time. However, the election of President
Trump presents a unique opportunity to disentangle party attachment
from ideological commitment. Using a research design that employs
actual “conservative” and “liberal” policy statements from President
Trump, we find that low-knowledge respondents, strong Republicans,
Trump-approving respondents, and self-described conservatives are
the most likely to behave like party loyalists by accepting the
Trump cue—in either a liberal or conservative direction. These
results suggest that there are a large number of party loyalists in
the United States, that their claims to being a self-defined
conservative are suspect, and that group loyalty is the stronger
motivator of opinion than are any ideological principles.
A document preserved in the Barbieri Collection at the National Library provides us with the following information concerning sums paid to the choir boys in the first third of 1561. No list appears in the ‘Roolos’ for that year.
Two types of secular vocal music were cultivated in Spain during the sixteenth century: unaccompanied polyphonic songs and solo songs with instrumental accompaniment. The compositions for unaccompanied voices have been preserved principally in musical anthologies, the Cancioneros. Many remain anonymous, but recent investigations have disclosed new names and made possible new and more complete attributions. A number of the composers were chiefly celebrated for their religious works. Usually they were attached to the Royal Chapels in the Peninsula itself or in the Kingdom of Naples. Later in the century Spanish composers lived much abroad holding posts at various Italian courts or at the Imperial Court in Vienna. The great trio, Morales, Guerrero, Victoria wrote little or no secular music.
A considerable literature of solo songs with instrumental accompaniment has been preserved in the very numerous collections of music for the vihuela. This instrument, shaped very like the guitar, with narrow waist and flat back, was designed, however, for the performance of complicated contrapuntal music such as was played more generally at that time on the lute.
In the introductory section of La Música en la Corte de Carlos V (Barcelona, 1944), Dr. Higinio Anglés published a series of documents from the Archives at Simancas which showed that a Chapel composed exclusively of Spanish musicians was attached to the Royal Court of Spain as early as 1526 and existed simultaneously with the Emperor's Flemish Chapel from that time. The Spanish Chapel was established by the Empress, Isabel of Portugal, the wife of Charles V, who acted as his regent during his many and prolonged absences from Spain. While the Flemish Chapel regularly accompanied the Emperor on his journeys, the chapel of the Empress belonged to her household and remained permanently in Spain. It is interesting to note the name of Antonio de Cabezón in the first list of cantors of this chapel. The name of the great composer of keyboard music appeared continuously among the musicians attached to the Royal Court until he died in 1566.
The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) is an important legacy of the International Polar Year (IPY). APECS continues to foster engagement in education, outreach and communication (EOC) activities relating to the polar regions and provide training for early career researchers (ECRs). We highlight opportunities for training, leadership and skills development, such as the annual Polar Weeks and Antarctica Day celebrations. Participation and engagement in EOC activities actively contributes to career development by enabling ECRs to develop valuable soft skills such as networking, communication and interdisciplinary knowledge. A pilot survey on EOC engagement highlighted that those who organise events also gain leadership skills such as team management. We discuss several factors contributing to the success of APECS in training the next generation of polar leaders. These include the geographical rather than discipline-specific focus of the organisation, utilisation of online resources, including social media, and the strong links with partner organisations. These examples demonstrate how the EOC legacy of IPY has continued due to APECS’ targeted efforts to create EOC opportunities and provide skills and leadership training for ECRs.
Strain rates are fundamental measures of ice flow and are used in a wide variety of glaciological applications including investigations of bed properties, calculations of basal mass balance on ice shelves, and constraints on ice rheological models. However, despite their extensive application, strain rates are calculated using a variety of methods and length scales and the details are often not specified. In this study, we compare the results of nominal and logarithmic strain-rate calculations based on a satellite-derived velocity field of the Antarctic ice sheet generated from Landsat 8 satellite data. Our comparison highlights the differences between the two common approaches in the glaciological literature. We evaluate the errors introduced by each approach and their impacts on the results. We also demonstrate the importance of choosing and specifying a length scale over which strain-rate calculations are made, which can strongly influence other derived quantities such as basal mass balance on ice shelves. Finally, we present strain-rate data products calculated using an approximate viscous length-scale with satellite observations of ice velocity for the Antarctic continent.
Anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use is known to be associated with other psychiatric disorders, such as body image disorders, conduct disorder/sociopathy, and other substance use disorders (SUD) – but the causal pathways among these conditions remain poorly delineated.
We created a directed acyclic graph to diagram hypothesized relationships among AAS use and dependence, body image disorder (BID), conduct disorder/sociopathy, and other SUD. Using proportional hazards models, we then assessed potentially causal relationships among these variables, using a dataset of 233 male weightlifters, of whom 102 had used AAS.
BID and conduct disorder/sociopathy both strongly contributed to the development of AAS use, but did not appear to contribute further to the progression from AAS use to AAS dependence. Other SUD beginning prior to first AAS use – whether broadly defined or restricted only to opioids – failed to show an effect on AAS use or progression to AAS dependence. Conversely, AAS use contributed significantly to the subsequent first-time development of opioid use disorders but did not significantly increase the risk for first-time development of non-opioid SUD, taken as a whole.
Our analysis suggests that AAS use and other SUD are mutually attributable to underlying conduct disorder/sociopathy. SUD do not appear to represent a ‘gateway’ to subsequent AAS use. AAS use may represent a gateway to subsequent opioid use disorder, but probably not to other SUD.
Mycobacterium paratuberculosis is the known cause of Johne's disease in cattle and has been implicated as a cause of Crohn's disease in humans. Concern has been expressed that the organism, which is excreted in milk and faeces of infected cattle, may be transmitted via pasteurised milk. This is largely from work that has shown an unacceptable risk of survival of the organism when it is present in raw milk at numbers exceeding 102 cfu/ml. Three possible reasons for this apparent heat resistance were investigated viz. use of a milk heating menstruum, presence of a heat resistant sub–population, and the tendency of the organism to form clumps. Heat resistance studies using a combined acid–fast/viability stain, and a comparison of the relative heat sensitivities of clumped and de-clumped M. paratuberculosis cells provided circumstantial evidence that it is the organism's tendency to form clumps which confers the apparent heat resistance. This work casts doubt on the efficacy of current commercial pasteurisation heat treatments (72°C/15s) for the inactivation of M. paratuberculosis. This would be of concern if a link between M. paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease is eventually established.