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Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
The study focuses on the point prevalence of major depressive episode in the Estonian population in 2006 and assesses the relationship of sociodemographic factors, health status indicators, alcohol use, and previous depressive episodes to major depression.
The present major depressive episode was assessed within the nationally representative, cross-sectional 2006 Estonian Health Survey (EHIS 2006), in which non-institutionalized individuals aged 18–84 years (n = 6105) were interviewed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).
The point prevalence of major depressive episode in the Estonian population was 5.6%. Depression was higher among females, in the non-Estonian ethnic group, among people older than 40 years, and in the lower-income group.
The point prevalence of major depressive episodes was comparable with the results of other population surveys, being a little higher than the average. Age, income, ethnicity, health status, self-rated health, and previous depressive episode were independent associates of depression.
This book, geared toward academic researchers and graduate students, brings together research on all facets of how time and causality relate across the sciences. Time is fundamental to how we perceive and reason about causes. It lets us immediately rule out the sound of a car crash as its cause. That a cause happens before its effect has been a core, and often unquestioned, part of how we describe causality. Research across disciplines shows that the relationship is much more complex than that. This book explores what that means for both the metaphysics and epistemology of causes - what they are and how we can find them. Across psychology, biology, and the social sciences, common themes emerge, suggesting that time plays a critical role in our understanding. The increasing availability of large time series datasets allows us to ask new questions about causality, necessitating new methods for modeling dynamic systems and incorporating mechanistic information into causal models.
Summarizing post-structuralism faces an initial challenge since as a style and a form of thought it submits to self-reflexive criticism the identity, clarity, and fixedness of delineation itself. By definition it problematizes definition in ways that take issue with the task of concise historical appraisal. Still, we can distinguish two generative scenes: French thought in the 1960s and 1970s, and its global reception. Reflecting complex similarities to and differences from structuralism, post-structuralist styles of thought came to be associated with diverse figures such as Louis Althusser, Roland Barthes, Jean Baudrillard, Hélène Cixous, Guy Debord, Gilles Deleuze, Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault, Félix Guattari, Luce Irigaray, Julia Kristeva, Jacques Lacan, and Jean-François Lyotard. The term post-structuralism, however, never resonated a great deal in France itself.