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Eighty percent of all patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) relapse at least once in their lifetime. Thus, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of the course of MDD is of utmost importance. A detrimental course of illness in MDD was most consistently associated with superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) fiber integrity. As similar associations were, however, found between SLF fiber integrity and acute symptomatology, this study attempts to disentangle associations attributed to current depression from long-term course of illness.
A total of 531 patients suffering from acute (N = 250) or remitted (N = 281) MDD from the FOR2107-cohort were analyzed in this cross-sectional study using tract-based spatial statistics for diffusion tensor imaging. First, the effects of disease state (acute v. remitted), current symptom severity (BDI-score) and course of illness (number of hospitalizations) on fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity were analyzed separately. Second, disease state and BDI-scores were analyzed in conjunction with the number of hospitalizations to disentangle their effects.
Disease state (pFWE < 0.042) and number of hospitalizations (pFWE< 0.032) were associated with decreased FA and increased MD and RD in the bilateral SLF. A trend was found for the BDI-score (pFWE > 0.067). When analyzed simultaneously only the effect of course of illness remained significant (pFWE < 0.040) mapping to the right SLF.
Decreased FA and increased MD and RD values in the SLF are associated with more hospitalizations when controlling for current psychopathology. SLF fiber integrity could reflect cumulative illness burden at a neurobiological level and should be targeted in future longitudinal analyses.
In this paper, we complement joint time-series and cross-section convergence results derived in a companion paper Hahn, Kuersteiner, and Mazzocco (2016, Central Limit Theory for Combined Cross-Section and
Time Series) by allowing for serial correlation in the time-series sample. The implications of our analysis are limiting distributions that have a well-known form of long-run variances for the time-series limit. We obtain these results at the cost of imposing strict stationarity for the time-series model and conditional independence between the time-series and cross-section samples. Our results can be applied to estimators that combine time-series and cross-section data in the presence of aggregate uncertainty in models with rationally forward-looking agents.
Schizotypy is a putative risk phenotype for psychosis liability, but the overlap of its genetic architecture with schizophrenia is poorly understood.
We tested the hypothesis that dimensions of schizotypy (assessed with the SPQ-B) are associated with a polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia in a sample of 623 psychiatrically healthy, non-clinical subjects from the FOR2107 multi-centre study and a second sample of 1133 blood donors.
We did not find correlations of schizophrenia PRS with either overall SPQ or specific dimension scores, nor with adjusted schizotypy scores derived from the SPQ (addressing inter-scale variance). Also, PRS for affective disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) were not significantly associated with schizotypy.
This important negative finding demonstrates that despite the hypothesised continuum of schizotypy and schizophrenia, schizotypy might share less genetic risk with schizophrenia than previously assumed (and possibly less compared to psychotic-like experiences).
The n-3 PUFA, EPA and DHA, play an important role in human health. As the intake of EPA and DHA from the diet is often inadequate, supplementation of those fatty acids is recommended. A novel source of n-3 PUFA is Calanus finmarchicus oil (CO) which contains fatty acids mainly bound in wax esters. To date, no data are available on the effects of long-term intake of this marine oil on n-3 PUFA blood levels. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CO on the n-3 PUFA blood levels using the omega-3 index (O3I). The data originate from a larger randomised controlled trial. For this analysis, samples from seventy-two participants (59·2 (sd 6·2) years, BMI 27·7 (sd 5·28) kg/m2) were analysed. Of those, thirty-six performed 2×/week exercise and received 2 g of CO, which provided 124 mg stearidonic acid (SDA), 109 mg EPA and 87 mg DHA daily (EXCO group), while the other group performed exercise only (EX group) and served as a control for this analysis. The O3I increased from 6·07 (sd 1·29) % at baseline to 7·37 (sd 1·10) % after 12 weeks within the EXCO group (P < 0·001), while there were no significant changes in the EX group (6·01 (sd 1·26)–6·15 (sd 1·32) %, P = 0·238). These data provide first evidence that wax ester-bound n-3 PUFA from CO can significantly increase the O3I despite relatively low EPA + DHA amounts. Further, the effects of exercise could be excluded.
Retail sales of fluid cow’s milk are decreasing while those of plant-based milk analogues are increasing. In this study, we model the relationship between households’ purchases of both types of products and perform simulations. Results show that growing consumer demand for plant-based products is causing cow’s milk sales to decline somewhat faster than otherwise. However, plant-based products are not a primary driver of sales trends for cow’s milk. The decline in cow’s milk sales is substantially greater than the rise in sales of plant-based analogues.
Subclinical psychotic-like experiences (PLE), resembling key symptoms of psychotic disorders, are common throughout the general population and possibly associated with psychosis risk. There is evidence that such symptoms are also associated with structural brain changes.
In 672 healthy individuals, we assessed PLE and associated distress with the symptom-checklist-90R (SCL-90R) scales ‘schizotypal signs’ (STS) and ‘schizophrenia nuclear symptoms’ (SNS) and analysed associations with voxel- and surfaced-based brain structural parameters derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T with CAT12.
For SNS, we found a positive correlation with the volume in the left superior parietal lobule and the precuneus, and a negative correlation with the volume in the right inferior temporal gyrus [p < 0.05 cluster-level Family Wise Error (FWE-corrected]. For STS, we found a negative correlation with the volume of the left and right precentral gyrus (p < 0.05 cluster-level FWE-corrected). Surface-based analyses did not detect any significant clusters with the chosen statistical threshold of p < 0.05. However, in exploratory analyses (p < 0.001, uncorrected), we found a positive correlation of SNS with gyrification in the left insula and rostral middle frontal gyrus and of STS with the left precuneus and insula, as well as a negative correlation of STS with gyrification in the left temporal pole.
Our results show that brain structures in areas implicated in schizophrenia are also related to PLE and its associated distress in healthy individuals. This pattern supports a dimensional model of the neural correlates of symptoms of the psychotic spectrum.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Older patients with HL have worse outcomes than younger patients, which may reflect treatment selection, including fewer chemotherapy cycles. Immortal time bias exists when patients must survival to initiation, and even completion, of treatment. We described treatment length and death to evaluate the extent of immortal time bias. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This retrospective cohort study utilized SEER-Medicare data from 1999-2014. Patients diagnosed with incident advanced stage HL at age ≥65 years and enrolled in Medicare Part A and B fee for service were included. Chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment initiated within 4 months of diagnosis was determined from inpatient, outpatient, and physician/supplier claims. No treatment was defined by lack of treatment claims. Dates from claims were used to define length of treatment; ≥4 months of treatment indicated complete chemotherapy cycles. Date of death was obtained from Medicare data. Analyses were limited to 1 year post-diagnosis. Summary statistics were used to describe treatment length and subsequent death. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We included 1492 advanced stage HL patients with a mean age of 76 years (SD = 7). 428 (29%) patients had no documented treatment; 397 (27%) were treated <4 months indicating fewer chemotherapy cycles; and 667 (45%) were treated for ≥4 months indicating complete chemotherapy cycles. Among those with no documented treatment, 15% died within 1 month of diagnosis with 78% dying by 1 year post-diagnosis. Among those treated <4 months, 36% died within 1 month of their last treatment claim with 64% dying by 1 year post-diagnosis. Among those treated ≥4 months, 7% died within 1 month of their last treatment claim with 14% dying by 1 year post-diagnosis. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Few untreated patients died within 1 month of diagnosis. One-third of patients treated <4 months died soon after completion of treatment, while patients treated longer survived longer, suggesting some patients did not survive to complete treatment. To account for this immortal time bias, landmark analysis will be used to assess the relationship between treatment and survival.
Serotonergic neurotransmission plays a key role in seasonal changes of mood and behaviour. Higher serotonin transporter availability in healthy human subjects in times of lesser light has been reported in recent studies. Furthermore, seasonal alterations of postsynaptic serotonin-1A receptors have been suggested by a recent animal study. Following that, this study aimed at identifying seasonal alterations of serotonin-1A receptor binding in the living human brain.
Thirty-six healthy, drug-naïve subjects were investigated using PET and the specific tracer [carbonyl-11C]WAY-100635. Regional serotonin-1A receptor binding (5-HT1A BPND) was related to the individual exposure to global radiation. Furthermore, the subjects were divided into two groups depending on individual exposure to global radiation, and the group differences in regional 5-HT1A BPND were determined.
Correlation analysis controlled for age and gender revealed highly significant positive correlations between regional postsynaptic 5-HT1A BPND and global radiation accumulated for 5 days (r=.32 to .48, p=.030 to .002). Highly significant differences in 5-HT1A BPND binding between subjects with low compared to high exposure to global radiation were revealed (T=-2.63 to -3.77, p .013 to .001). 20% to 30% lower 5-HT1A BPND was found in the subject group exposed to lower amount of global radiation.
Seasonal factors such as exposure to global radiation influence postsynaptic serotonin-1A receptor binding in various brain regions in healthy human subjects. In combination with seasonal alterations in serotonin turnover and 5-HTT availability revealed in recent studies, our results provide an essential contribution of molecular mechanisms in seasonal changes of human serotonergic neurotransmission.
Regional alterations of serotonergic neurotransmission and functional activation in the amygdalar region of patients with major depression are underpinning its important role in affective disorders. In this study we used fMRI and PET to describe functional and molecular alterations associtated with an astrocytoma in the left amygdalar region in a patient with organic depressive disorder compared to control subjects.
The serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor binding (BPND) was quantified with PET (30 frames, 90 min, 4.4 mm FWHM) in 36 subjects using the radioligand [carbonyl-11C]WAY-100635, and a reference tissue model (MRTM2). In fMRI (3T, EPI inplane resolution 1.6*2.7 mm, 10 AC-PC orientated slices, ST = 3 mm, TE/TR = 31/1000 ms), 32 participants performed emotion discrimination and sensorimotor control tasks. Statistical analysis with SPM5 and unpaired t-tests were performed on molecular and functional data separately.
The astrocytoma was delineated in the serotonin-1A receptor distribution showing (p < 0.01, uncorrected) regional BPND decrease. The ipsilateral thalamus and bilateral habenula regions displayed (p < 0.001; uncorrected) BPND increase. The fMRI data showed significantly (p < 0.05; uncorrected) reduced activation in the affected amygdalar region, ipsilateral fusiform gyrus, bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and temporal regions and increased activation in the contralateral temporal pole.
Lower serotonin-1A receptor binding in the left amydala region reflects the glial provenance of the tumor. The increased receptor binding in the habenulae might be associated with altered monoaminergic neurotransmission and depressive symptoms according to the influence of the habenulae on monoaminergic nuclei. The functional data demonstrate neuroplastic changes beyond affected areas and might indicate compensatory mechanisms.
Based on evidences in molecular neuroimaging, postmortem and genetic studies, impaired serotonergic neurotransmission has been implicated with affective disorders. Moreover, a growing number of evidences showed strong interrelations within the serotonergic system suggesting a common mechanism in the modulation of receptor and transporter densities.
Here we directly investigated the regional expression of the 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A and 5-HTT using PET and the three highly selective and specific radioligands [carbonyl-11C]WAY-100635, [18F]Altanserin and [11C]DASB in healthy subjects.
A total of 55 healthy subjects (5-HT1A: 36 subjects, 18 males, age = 26.0 ± 4.9; 5-HT2A: 19 subjects, 11 males, age = 28.2 ± 5.9; 5-HTT: 8 males, age = 28.12 ± 3.6) were included in this study. Binding potential (BPND) values were quantified according to the AAL parcellation scheme.
BPND values averaged over both hemispheres ranged from 0.40–6.35 for the 5-HT1A receptor; 0.01–2.01 for the 5-HT2A receptor and 0.09–2.05 for the 5-HTT, respectively. There was a specific topological pattern according to the ratio between the 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A receptors and 5-HTT (“fingerprints”).
Such information can be essential for detecting potential local alterations in the ratio between different binding proteins on a network level in pathological conditions.
Moreover, these data might provide further insight in area-specific effects of frequently prescribed selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI):
1) due to the distinct local receptor and transporter availability;
2) SSRI application alters the postsynaptic receptor expression and thus;
3) leads to a modified interaction of inhibitory and exhibitory receptors.
Alterations of the serotonin-1A receptor (5-HT1A) and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been reported in depression and anxiety disorders. We previously showed a strong negative correlation between cortisol plasma levels and 5-HT1A receptor binding potential (BP) in patients with social anxiety disorder but not in healthy controls using PET .
To investigate the relationship of cortisol and the 5-HT1A BP in postmenopausal women, a population that is at increased risk of suffering from depressive symptoms.
Subjects: 19 postmenopausal women, aged 55.26 ± 4.98, medication free, no current substance abuse or hormone replacement therapy.
Dynamic measurements (50 frames, 90 min) were performed using the radioligand [carbonyl-11C]WAY100635 and a GE-Advance scanner. PET data were normalized to a ligand-specific template . Regions-of-interest (ROI) were defined as given in . TACs within ROIs were averaged and the 5-HT1A receptor BP was quantified using Logan-plot and PMOD 3.1. Measurement of total cortisol plasma levels was done using electrochemoluminescence.
We found negative correlations between cortisol and 5-HT1A BP in the midbrain (Spearman's rs = −0.54, p = 0.02), the median raphe nucleus (rs = −0.47, p = 0.04) and the nucleus accumbens (rs = −0.505, p = 0.03).
In line with our previous findings , the observed negative association between cortisol plasma levels and 5-HT1A BP might reflect an increased vulnerability for mood disorders in postmenopausal women.
The subgenual part of the anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) has been frequently reported to be structurally and cytoarchitectually changed in major depressive disorder (MDD) and is also a promising target in deep brain stimulation in treatment-resistant MDD. Furthermore, substantial evidence demonstrates a high density of serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptors in the sgACC, a key area involved in emotional processing.
Here, we investigated the relationship between the 5-HT1A receptor in the sgACC and changes in regional grey matter volume with voxel-based morphometry.
PET ([carbonyl-11C]WAY-100635) was used to quantify 5-HT1A receptor binding (BPND) together with structural magnetic resonance images from 32 healthy subjects (mean 26.68 ± 5.1 years; 17 women). Regression analysis was performed in SPM8 (p < .001 uncorr.) using sgACC 5-HT1A BPND as regressor, controlling for sex, age and total grey matter volume (GMV).
5-HT1A BPND in the sgACC was positively associated with regional GMV in the medial temporal gyri (T=4.37) and nucleus accumbens bilaterally (T = 4.19). Furthermore, sgACC 5-HT1A binding was negatively correlated with GMV within the inferior temporal gyri (T = 5.22) and putamen bilaterally (T = 5.12).
Our findings demonstrate structural relationships between sgACC 5-HT1A receptor binding and grey matter volume in the ventral striatum as well as in temporal regions, which both exhibit close neuronal connections with the sgACC. Moreover, the GMV of the ventral striatum has been reported to be decreased in patients with MDD. Conclusively, our results underpin the role of serotonergic neuronal transmission in cytoarchitectural processes within regions involved in the modulation of mood.
Dysfunctional neuroplasticity contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and depression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Previous studies report neuromodulatory properties of the serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor, which is also altered in these disorders. This suggests 5-HT1A mediated neuroplasticity as potential pathogenic factor.
The aim of this study was to demonstrate 5-HT1A mediated neuroplasticity in vivo.
We used positron emission tomography to quantify 5-HT1A receptor binding (BPND) together with structural magnetic resonance imaging in 35 healthy subjects (mean 26.6 ±6.8 years; 17 women). Voxel-wise regression analysis was performed with gray matter volume (GMV) as dependent and 5-HT1A BPND as independent variable. Additionally, regression analysis was calculated with whole brain GMV as dependent variable and 5-HT1A BPND of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) as independent variable. Control variables were age, sex and total GMV, respectively.
5-HT1A receptor density predicted GMV of the hippocampus, medial temporal cortex, inferior temporal cortex, medial occipital cortex and the pericalcarine region in each hemisphere (p < 0.05 false discovery rate corrected, R2: 0.308–0.503). These associations were independent from local numbers of neurons. Furthermore, 5−HT1A receptor levels in the DRN predicted GMV of the anterior cingulate cortex (p = 0.001, R2=0.656, uncorrected).
These results demonstrate 5-HT1A receptor mediated morphogenetic mechanisms in healthy human subjects' brains, which occur not only locally but also at the macro-network level. Finally, morphogenetic signaling investigated with multimodal neuroimaging could contribute to better understanding and diagnostic identification of gray matter loss in neuropsychiatric disorders.
Studies in general and psychiatric populations have mainly reported higher rates of somatisation in immigrants. Cross-cultural studies, confirmed that East-Asian non-immigrant patients reported fewer psychological and more somatic symptoms in depression. However studies on somatisation in depression are lacking for Vietnamese migrants in Europe.
To explore whether Vietnamese outpatients, who utilized a psychiatric outpatient clinic in Germany had a tendency to present more somatic symptoms in depression.
For FG Vietnamese outpatients, psychological symptoms were assessed by depression-scale (PHQ-9) and somatic symptoms were assessed by the Somatic-symptom-scale (PHQ-15) in Vietnamese language by a Vietnamese psychiatrist. German outpatients who were assessed in the same outpatient clinic where matched for age, gender and diagnosis of MDE. Differences in PHQ-9 and PHQ-15 scales where analyzed with an ANOVA and single-item-differences of PHQ where analyzed with Mann-Whithney-Tests.
43 FG Vietnamese immigrants and 43 native german outpatients where included. While we found no differences on the total score of the PHQ-9 between both groups, FG-Vietnamese outpatients had an overall higher total score on somatic-symptom-scale PHQ-15. When analyzing somatic items FG-Vietnamese outpatients reported significantly more somatic symptoms of headache, chest-pain, dizziness and fainting.
Depressed Vietnamese outpatients reported psychological symptoms of depression at similar levels as matched native German outpatients. Vietnamese outpatients had a higher total score for somatic symptoms, and that difference was driven by a subset of somatic items. We concluded, that emphasis on somatic symptoms does not reflect a minimization of psychological symptoms in FG-Vietnamese outpatients seeking help for depression.
The serotonergic system modulates brain functions that are considered to underlie affective states, emotion and cognition. Several lines of evidence point towards a strong lateralization of these mental processes, indicating similar asymmetries in associated neurotransmitter systems.
To investigate a potential brain asymmetry of the serotonin transporter (SERT) distribution using Positron Emission Tomography (PET).
As brain asymmetries differ between sexes, we aimed to compare serotonin transporter asymmetry between females, males and male-to-female transsexuals whose brains are considered to be partly feminized.
36 subjects aged 19-54 years (9 female controls, 13 male controls and 14 male-to-female transsexuals) were measured with PET and [11C]DASB. Whole-brain voxel-wise SERT binding potential (BPND) maps were computed using a tracer-specific symmetric template. Statistics comprised repeated measures ANOVA with group as the between subjects factor, voxel-wise SERT asymmetry as repeated factor and group*asymmetry as interaction term.
SERT binding in all groups showed both strong left and rightward asymmetries in several cortical and subcortical structures including temporal and frontal cortices, anterior cingulate, hippocampus, caudate and thalamus (p< 0.05 FDRcorrected). Further, male controls showed a rightward asymmetry in the midcingulate cortex (p>0.05 FDR-corrected) which was absent in females and male-to-female transsexuals.
Our data support the notion of a lateralized serotonergic system, which is in line with previous findings of asymmetric serotonin-1A receptor distributions, extracellular serotonin concentrations, serotonin turnover and uptake. The absence of serotonin transporter asymmetry in the midcingulate in male-to-female transsexuals may be attributed to an absence of brain masculinization in this region.
Flow cytometry of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is used in isolation or as an adjunct to cytology to increase the sensitivity of detecting central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. We aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of CSF flow cytometry as a diagnostic screening tool for primary CNS lymphoma in patients presenting with undifferentiated neurologic symptoms.
We retrospectively reviewed all CSF samples received by the Calgary Laboratory Services Flow Cytometry Laboratory from 2012 to 2015. Clinical data, laboratory investigations, radiologic imaging studies, and pathological data were analyzed. Clinical review extended to 2 years post-CSF flow cytometric testing.
Only 43/763 (5.6%) samples of CSF flow cytometry in 28/573 (4.9%) patients were found to be positive for a hematological malignancy in patients with undifferentiated neurologic symptoms. The overall sensitivity of the test was 13.8% with 25 patients with negative CSF flow cytometry later having a positive biopsy for CNS lymphoma. CSF flow cytometry was negative in all cases when at the time of CSF examination the patient did not have a previous hematological malignancy or findings of abnormal enhancement on MRI (n = 249).
CSF flow cytometry has low utility in screening for primary CNS lymphoma in the absence of a previous history of hematologic malignancy or findings of abnormal enhancement on MRI.