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A vivid social history of Baltimore's prostitution trade and its evolution throughout the nineteenth century, Bawdy City centers woman in a story of the relationship between sexuality, capitalism, and law. Beginning in the colonial period, prostitution was little more than a subsistence trade. However, by the 1840s, urban growth and changing patterns of household labor ushered in a booming brothel industry. The women who oversaw and labored within these brothels were economic agents surviving and thriving in an urban world hostile to their presence. With the rise of urban leisure industries and policing practices that spelled the end of sex establishments, the industry survived for only a few decades. Yet, even within this brief period, brothels and their residents altered the geographies, economy, and policies of Baltimore in profound ways. Hemphill's critical narrative of gender and labor shows how sexual commerce and debates over its regulation shaped an American city.
Jacob Gersen, Jacob Gersen is Sidley Austin Professor of Law at Harvard Law School, Affiliate Professor in the Department of Government, and Director of the Food Law Lab, which supports academic research on the legal treatment of food in society.,
C. Scott Hemphill, Scott Hemphill is Professor of Law at NYU School of Law, where he teaches and writes about antitrust, intellectual property, and regulation of industry.
JUST OVER A century ago, The Coca-Cola Company faced a major challenge. Copycat colas with similar names and bottle designs—Noka-Cola, Coke-Ola, and the like—openly free-rode on the popularity of the fizzy drink. In 1915 it devised a potent tool to deter knockoffs: the distinctive delivery system that we know today as the Coca-Cola bottle.
A unique bottle, the Company hoped. would serve as a versatile and powerful anti-fraud device. If the company's bottlers used only this bottle, and only Coca-Cola was sold in the bottle, consumers could know exactly what they were getting. The company could sue any competitor that dared to use a similar (much less identical) bottle. Better yet, the cost and risk of development might be too great for a knockoff to even attempt.
Today the famous curvy bottle is ubiquitous and synonymous with the product itself. Yet, the whole notion of bottling was actually an afterthought for the company. Early ads showed only fountain Coca-Cola. Company founder Asa Candler thought bottles were low-class and left the bottling task to others, even going so far as to enter into a perpetual contract for syrup at a set price because he was so dubious of the enterprise. Syrup was sold to bottling franchisees all over the country. Candler miscalculated, as bottle sales soon outpaced fountain sales. Even Americans who would never find themselves seated at the soda fountain could buy a bottle of Coca-Cola for a nickel. While Candler's decision left huge profits on the table, it had the happy side effect of encouraging entrepreneurs to spread the Coca-Cola gospel. Bottling turned out be a force for consumer diversification and mass consumption.
The company needed the bottlers’ cooperation and investment to make any switch to a new uniform bottle. Yet bottlers were an unlikely partner in the quest to stamp out free-riders. Early bottles could be any shape or color, required by contract merely to have diamond-shaped paper labels bearing the company's name in capital letters. As agents of the company, some bottlers were faithless in the early days, furtively adulterating the syrup with saccharine.
We assessed the impact of an embedded electronic medical record decision-support matrix (Cerner software system) for the reduction of hospital-onset Clostridioides difficile. A critical review of 3,124 patients highlighted excessive testing frequency in an academic medical center and demonstrated the impact of decision support following a testing fidelity algorithm.
The essential oil (EO) of Thymus capitatus, seven fractions (F1–F7) obtained from silica gel chromatography, and several pure EO components were evaluated with respect to in vitro activities against Echinococcus multilocularis metacestodes and germinal layer (GL) cells. Attempts to evaluate physical damage in metacestodes by phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) assay failed because EO and F1–F7 interfered with the PGI-activity measurements. A metacestode viability assay based on Alamar Blue, as well as transmission electron microscopy, demonstrated that exposure to EO, F2 and F4 impaired metacestode viability. F2 and F4 exhibited higher toxicity against metacestodes than against mammalian cells, whereas EO was as toxic to mammalian cells as to the parasite. However, none of these fractions exhibited notable activity against isolated E. multilocularis GL cells. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that carvacrol was the major component of the EO (82.4%), as well as of the fractions F3 (94.4%), F4 (98.1%) and F5 (90.7%). Other major components of EO were β-caryophyllene, limonene, thymol and eugenol. However, exposure of metacestodes to these components was ineffective. Thus, fractions F2 and F4 of T. capitatus EO contain potent anti-echinococcal compounds, but the activities of these two fractions are most likely based on synergistic effects between several major and minor constituents.
This is the first report on the development and characterization of eight monoclonal antibodies (MABs) generated against whole- and membrane-enriched tachyzoite extracts of the apicomplexan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy was used to localize respective epitopes in B. besnoiti tachyzoites along the lytic cycle. A pattern compatible with dense granule staining was observed with MABs 2.A.12, 2.F.3 and 2.G.4, which could be confirmed by immunogold electron microscopy for MABs 2.A.12 and 2.F.3. In particular, MABs 2.F.3 and 2.G.4 were secreted during early invasion, proliferation and egress phases. MABs 3.10.8 and 5.5.11 labelled the tachyzoite surface, whilst MABs 1.17.8, 8.9.2 and 2.G.A recognized the apical tip, which is reminiscent for microneme localization. Besides, the epitopes recognized by the latter two (MABs 8.9.2 and 2.G.A) exhibited a redistribution from the anterior part across the parasite surface towards the posterior end during invasion. Most MABs developed were genus-specific. Indeed, the MABs cross-reacted neither with T. gondii nor with N. caninum tachyzoites. In summary, we have generated MABs that will be useful to study the key processes in the lytic cycle of the parasite and with additional promising diagnostic value. However, the molecular identity of the antigens recognized remains to be elucidated.
We here assessed the in vitro efficacy of the naptho-quinone buparvaquone (BPQ) against Besnoitia besnoiti tachyzoites in vitro. BPQ is currently licensed for the treatment of theileriosis in cattle in many countries, but not in the EU. In 4-day treatment assays, BPQ massively impaired tachyzoite proliferation with an IC50 of 10 ± 3 nm, and virtually complete inhibition was obtained in the presence of nm BPQ. Exposure to 1 µm BPQ leads to ultrastructural changes affecting initially the mitochondrial matrix and the cristae. After 96 h, most parasites were largely distorted, filled with cytoplasmic amylopectin granules and vacuoles containing components of unknown composition. Host cell mitochondria did not appear to be notably affected by the drug. However, upon prolonged exposure (14–16 days) to increased BPQ concentrations, B. besnoiti tachyzoites exhibited the capacity to adapt, and they resumed proliferation at dosages of up to 10 µm BPQ, albeit at a lower rate. These BPQ-adapted parasites maintained this lower susceptibility to BPQ treatment after freeze–thawing, and inspection by the transmission electron microscopy revealed that they underwent proliferation in the absence of structurally intact mitochondria.
Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an emerging zoonotic disease caused by the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The secondary infection model of AE is based on intraperitoneal injection of disease-causing metacestodes into the peritoneal cavity of mice, which allows investigations on novel drugs or immunotherapeutical treatment options in vivo. So far, such in vivo studies assessed exclusively the parasite weight at the endpoint of a given treatment period. We here developed an ultrasound (US)-based scoring system that allows to follow-up parasite development in the living animal, and provides insights into parasite growth during the treatment phase. By this method a statistically significant difference between untreated and medicated mice with E. multilocularis infection was observed at 2 months post-infection, and the growth curve of the parasite load was described by a linear mixed model. High correlation and similar levels of variation were observed for the standard method based on parasite weight measurement, the novel US-based scoring system, as well volume segmentation by post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging. Thus, US-based scoring in the live animal has the potential to assist the 3R concept by contributing to the refinement and reduction of animal use in experimental echinococcosis.
Invasive stages of apicomplexan parasites require a host cell to survive, proliferate and advance to the next life cycle stage. Once invasion is achieved, apicomplexans interact closely with the host cell cytoskeleton, but in many cases the different species have evolved distinct mechanisms and pathways to modulate the structural organization of cytoskeletal filaments. The host cell cytoskeleton is a complex network, largely, but not exclusively, composed of microtubules, actin microfilaments and intermediate filaments, all of which are modulated by associated proteins, and it is involved in diverse functions including maintenance of cell morphology and mechanical support, migration, signal transduction, nutrient uptake, membrane and organelle trafficking and cell division. The ability of apicomplexans to modulate the cytoskeleton to their own advantage is clearly beneficial. We here review different aspects of the interactions of apicomplexans with the three main cytoskeletal filament types, provide information on the currently known parasite effector proteins and respective host cell targets involved, and how these interactions modulate the host cell physiology. Some of these findings could provide novel targets that could be exploited for the development of preventive and/or therapeutic strategies.
Immunoprophylactic products against neosporosis during pregnancy should induce an appropriately balanced immune response. In this respect, OprI, a bacterial lipoprotein targeting toll like receptor (TLR)2, provides promising adjuvant properties. We report on the manipulation of the innate and the T-cell immune response through the fusion of OprI with the Neospora caninum chimeric protein Mic3-1-R. In contrast to Mic3-1-R, OprI-MIC3-1-R significantly activated bone-marrow dendritic cells from naïve mice. Mice immunized with OprI-Mic3-1-R induced an immune response with mixed T helper (Th)1 and Th2 properties (high levels of both immunoglobulin (Ig)G1 and IgG2a and of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12(p70) and interferon-γ responses) whereas Mic3-1-R+saponin induced a clear Th2-biased response (low IgG2a and high IL-4 and IL-10). After mating and challenge with N. caninum, increased expression of interferon-γ was only found in placentas from OprI-Mic3-1-R immunized dams. However, no protection against vertical transmission and neonatal mortality was observed in either of the two groups. These results indicated that more exhaustive studies must be done to elucidate the immune mechanisms associated with transplacental transmission. Antigen linkage to TLR2-ligands, such as OprI, is a useful tool to investigate this enigma by reorienting the innate and adaptive immune responses against other candidate antigens in future studies.
Neospora caninum is a leading cause of abortion in cattle, and is thus an important veterinary health problem of high economic significance. Vaccination has been considered a viable strategy to prevent bovine neosporosis. Different approaches have been investigated, and to date the most promising results have been achieved with live-attenuated vaccines. Subunit vaccines have also been studied, and most of them represented components that are functionally involved in (i) the physical interaction between the parasite and its host cell during invasion or (ii) tachyzoite-to-bradyzoite stage conversion. Drugs have been considered as an option to limit the effects of vertical transmission of N. caninum. Promising results with a small panel of compounds in small laboratory animal models indicate the potential value of a chemotherapeutical approach for the prevention of neosporosis in ruminants. For both, vaccines and drugs, the key for success in preventing vertical transmission lies in the application of bioactive compounds that limit parasite proliferation and dissemination, without endangering the developing fetus not only during an exogenous acute infection but also during recrudescence of a chronic infection. In this review, the current status of vaccine and drug development is presented and novel strategies against neosporosis are discussed.
Virulence factors from the ROP2-family have been extensively studied in Toxoplasma gondii, but in the closely related Neospora caninum only NcROP2Fam-1 has been partially characterized to date. NcROP40 is a member of this family and was found to be more abundantly expressed in virulent isolates. Both NcROP2Fam-1 and NcROP40 were evaluated as vaccine candidates and exerted a synergistic effect in terms of protection against vertical transmission in mouse models, which suggests that they may be relevant for parasite pathogenicity. NcROP40 is localized in the rhoptry bulbs of tachyzoites and bradyzoites, but in contrast to NcROP2Fam-1, the protein does not associate with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane due to the lack of arginine-rich amphipathic helix in its sequence. Similarly to NcROP2Fam-1, NcROP40 mRNA levels are highly increased during tachyzoite egress and invasion. However, NcROP40 up-regulation does not appear to be linked to the mechanisms triggering egress. In contrast to NcROP2Fam-1, phosphorylation of NcROP40 was not observed during egress. Besides, NcROP40 secretion into the host cell was not successfully detected by immunofluorescence techniques. These findings indicate that NcROP40 and NcROP2Fam-1 carry out different functions, and highlight the need to elucidate the role of NcROP40 within the lytic cycle and to explain its relative abundance in tachyzoites.
Employer reluctance to hire disabled people narrows the economic and vocational opportunities of disabled people. This study investigates employer hiring decisions to identify which mainstream employers are most likely to hire disabled people. The study reports findings from interviews with eighty-seven employers in urban and regional South Australia. Analysis reveals differences across groups of employers based on their previous hiring behaviour. Communication from employment support agencies should specifically address concerns of non-hirers and light hirers. Long-term financial concerns present strong but surmountable barriers to light hirers employing disabled people. Policy mitigating long-term employer concerns could attract employers to hire disabled people for the first time (non-hirers) or return to hiring (light hirers) disabled people. Negative employers (antagonists) and employers already sustaining ongoing workplace relationships with disabled people (loyals) have insurmountable reasons to not hire any (or more) disabled people and should not be targeted.