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Several benzothiophene-based compounds, including 1-benzothiophene-2-carboxylic acid, exhibit a wide variety of pharmacological activities. They have been extensively used to treat various types of diseases with high therapeutic effectiveness. In this contribution, the crystal structure of a new polymorph of 1-benzothiophene-2-carboxylic acid (BTCA) was determined from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction data with DASH, refined by the Rietveld method with TOPAS-Academic, and optimized using DFT-D calculations. The new form of 1-benzothiophene-2-carboxylic acid crystallizes in space group C2/c (No. 15) with a = 14.635(4), b = 5.8543(9), c = 19.347(3) Å, β = 103.95(1)°, V = 1608.8(6) Å3, and Z = 8. The structure is a complex 3D arrangement which can be described in terms of hydrogen-bonded dimers of BTCA molecules, joined by the acid–acid homosynthon, which interact through C–H⋯O hydrogen bonds to produce tapes further connected through head-to-tail π⋯π and edge-to-face C–H⋯π interactions. A comparison with a previously reported triclinic polymorph and with the related 1-benzofuran-2-carboxylic acid (BFCA) is also presented.
During soybean seed germination, the expansive growth potential of the embryonic axes is driven by water uptake while cell wall loosening occurs in cells from the elongation zone (EZ). Expansins are regarded as primary promoters of cell wall remodelling in all plant expansion processes, with the expression profiles of the soybean expansins supporting their cell or tissue specificity. Therefore, we used embryonic axes isolated from whole seed and focused on the EZ to study seed germination. Using a suite of degenerate primers, we amplified an abundantly expressed expansin gene at the EZ during soybean embryonic axis germination, which was identified as EXP1 by in silico analyses. Expression studies showed that EXP1 was induced under germination conditions in distilled water and down-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA), which inhibits soybean germination by physiologically restraining expansion. Moreover, we also identified a time window of ABA responsiveness within the first 6 h of incubation in water, after which ABA lost control of both EXP1 expression and embryonic axis germination, thus confirming the early role of EXP1 in the EZ during this process. By contrast, EXP1 levels in the EZ increased even when germination was impaired by osmotically limiting the water availability required to develop the embryonic axes’ growth potential. We propose that these higher EXP1 levels are involved in the fast germination of soybean embryonic axes as soon as water availability is re-established. Taken together, our results show strong EXP1 expression in the EZ and postulate EXP1 as a target candidate for soybean seed germination control.
Although hepcidin synthesis is stimulated by inflammation and inhibited by Fe deficiency, the strength of their opposing effects on serum hepcidin (SHep) in humans remains unclear. It was recently shown that an inflammatory stimulus in anaemic women did not increase SHep or decrease Fe absorption. The enhancing effect of ascorbic acid on Fe absorption may not be effective during inflammation because of increased SHep. Our study aim was to test whether reducing inflammation in Fe-depleted overweight (OW) women with low-grade inflammation would lower SHep and improve Fe absorption with and without ascorbic acid, compared with normal-weight (NW) women without inflammation. Before and after 14 d of anti-inflammatory treatment (3 × 600 mg ibuprofen daily) in OW and NW women (n 36; 19–46 years of age), we measured SHep and fractional Fe absorption (FIA) (erythrocyte Fe incorporation) from 57Fe- and 58Fe-labelled test meals with and without ascorbic acid. There were significant group effects on IL-6, C-reactive protein, serum ferritin and SHep (for all, P < 0·05). There was a significant treatment effect on SHep (P < 0·05): in OW women, treatment decreased IL-6 by approximately 30 % and SHep by approximately 45 %. However, there were no significant treatment or group effects on FIA. Body Fe stores (BIS) were a significant positive predictor of SHep before and after treatment (P < 0·001), but IL-6 was not. Reducing chronic inflammation in OW women halved SHep but did not affect Fe absorption with or without ascorbic acid, and the main predictor of Fe absorption was BIS.
The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans, mainly in the so-called developed countries, such as Europe and North America. Although large carnivore populations have generally increased in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks. Of the eight bear species inhabiting the world, two (i.e. the Andean bear and the giant panda) have never been reported to attack humans, whereas the other six species have: sun bears Helarctos malayanus, sloth bears Melursus ursinus, Asiatic black bears Ursus thibetanus, American black bears Ursus americanus, brown bears Ursus arctos, and polar bears Ursus maritimus. This chapter provides insights into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of bear attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behavior when sharing the landscape with bears are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human–bear encounters and their consequences to bear conservation.
The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of 25-OH-D status (insufficiency and deficiency) in children and adolescents residing in Bucaramanga, Colombia and to determine its association with excess weight. A case–control study was nested in the SIMBA II cohort in children and adolescents between the ages of 11 and 20 years old. Cases were defined as those children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. The control group was composed of children and adolescents from the same population sample with similar sociodemographic and economic characteristics but without overweight or obesity diagnosis. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D) was quantified in serum using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association between vitamin D status and overweight or obesity adjusted for the main confounding variables. A total of 494 children and adolescents cases were 138 (52⋅17% boys and 47⋅83% girls; median age 16⋅0 [Q1 15; Q3 18]). The median BMI S-Score minors age in the cases was 1⋅36 [Q1 1⋅06; Q3 2⋅00] and BMI (kg/m2) 28⋅0 [Q1 26⋅2; Q3 30⋅8]. The prevalence of vitamin D in the cases was deficiency 16⋅67%, insufficiency 57⋅25%, sufficiency 26⋅09. 25-OH-D insufficiency was associated with overweight or obesity after adjusting for the main confounding variables (OR 1⋅73; 95% CI 1⋅05–2⋅84). Our study concludes that the 25-OH-D insufficiency is common in children and adolescents in Bucaramanga, Colombia, and it was associated with overweight or obesity.
Recognizing and managing existential suffering remains challenging. We present two cases demonstrating how existential suffering manifests in patients and how to manage it to alleviate suffering.
Case 1: A 69-year-old man with renal cell carcinoma receiving end-of-life care expressed fear of lying down “as he may not wake up.” He also expressed concerns of not being a good Christian. Supportive psychotherapy and chaplain support were provided, with anxiolytic medications as needed. He was able to express his fear of dying and concern about his family, and Edmonton Symptom Assessment System scores improved. He died peacefully with family at bedside. Case 2: A 71-year-old woman presented with follicular lymphoma and colonic obstruction requiring nasogastric drain of fecaloid matter. Initially, she felt that focusing on comfort rather than cure symbolized giving up but eventually felt at peace. Physical symptoms were well-controlled but emotionally she became more distressed, repeatedly asking angrily, “Why is it taking so long to die?.” She was supported by her family through Bible readings and prayers, but she was distressed about being a burden to them. An interdisciplinary approach involving expressive supportive counseling, spiritual care, and integrative medicine resulted in limited distress relief. Owing to increasing agitation, the patient and family agreed to titrate chlorpromazine to sedation. Her family was appreciative that she was restful until her death.
Existential suffering manifests through multiple domains in each patient. A combination of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic techniques may be needed to relieve end-of-life suffering.
Pulses such as peas, beans or lentils are one of the most complete foods at the nutritional level; however, they are one of the most often neglected foods in the diets of university students. Entrance to university translates into a major lifestyle change for many young people, and the habits acquired or cemented at this time will remain into adulthood. The objective of this study is to analyse the association between personal/sociodemographic factors, dietary intake of other food groups and the consumption of pulses in first-year university students. This cross-sectional study is part of the UniHcos project, a multicentre study of multipurpose prospective cohorts in eleven Spanish universities. Data from 9862 university students were collected through an online self-questionnaire completed by all students who met the selection criteria and agreed to participate in the project during the 2011–2018 academic years. Of students, 75·8 % presented an inadequate (≤2 times/week) consumption of pulses. Living outside the family home in either a student residence (OR 0·76; 95 % CI 0·69, 0·84) or rental (OR 0·81; 95 % CI 0·70, 0·95) decreased the compliance with recommendations on the consumption of pulses. Low consumption of pulses is seemingly not restricted to a specific profile or dietary pattern among university students, and no specific focus group for intervention can be identified. Policies promoting the consumption of pulses among the university population as a whole are necessary to increase compliance rates with the dietary recommendations.
Stochastic plateau production functions provide improved fertilizer recommendations based on multi-year agronomic experiments where weather and other stochastic variables change over time. This research assesses the profitability of no-tillage corn production in northeastern Colorado and determines economically optimal nitrogen fertilizer rates. It also proposes an alternative parameterization of the linear response stochastic plateau model which provides a robustness check against traditional parameterizations. Results show the current use of nitrogen fertilizer in the area exceeds estimated economically optimal levels. This suggests that a reduction in nitrogen use could increase expected profits and simultaneously reduce environmental costs.
The Cal-DSH Diversion Guidelines provide 10 general guidelines that jurisdictions should consider when developing diversion programs for individuals with a serious mental illness (SMI) who become involved in the criminal justice system. Screening for SMI in a jail setting is reviewed. In addition, important treatment interventions for SMI and substance use disorders are highlighted with the need to address criminogenic risk factors highlighted.
In order to determine the sex of Chelonia mydas individuals found within one of the principal foraging areas of the Gulf of California during any given stage of ontogeny, 529 individuals were sampled in Bahía de los Ángeles from 1995–2012, and their morphometric data were collected. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for the morphometric variables, and two principal components were obtained that unambiguously separated sexes and ontogenetic stages. The first component was defined by straight carapace length (SCL), curve carapace length (CCL), plastron length (PL) and carapace depth (CD), while the second factor was represented by total tail length (TTL). Allometric models were fitted with the most important variables determined by the PCA. The model PL = αSCLβ was able to distinguish between adults and immature individuals. For adult organisms, the model that best separated males from females was TTL = αSCLβ. Adult females had SCL values of 66–96.7 cm and TTL values of 16.3–25 cm, while adult males had SCL values of 66.4–12.5 cm and TTL values > 25 cm. As the organisms were considered immature only if SCL < 77.3, we were able to determine the TTL values for immature individuals by using elemental mathematics and solving for SCL in the equation TTL = αSCLβ for each group (i.e. adult females, adult males and immatures). So, considering the mathematical approach and acknowledging the lack of background information, immature individuals may be considered potential females if the TTL value is between 7.04–17.8 cm and potential males if the TTL value > 17.8 cm.
UK clinical guidelines recommend treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults by suitably qualified clinical teams. However, young people with ADHD attempting the transition from children's to adults’ services experience considerable difficulties in accessing care.
To map the mental health services in the UK for adults who have ADHD and compare the reports of key stakeholders (people with ADHD and their carers, health workers, service commissioners).
A survey about the existence and extent of service provision for adults with ADHD was distributed online and via national organisations (e.g. Royal College of Psychiatrists, the ADHD Foundation). Freedom of information requests were sent to commissioners. Descriptive analysis was used to compare reports from the different stakeholders.
A total of 294 unique services were identified by 2686 respondents. Of these, 44 (15%) were dedicated adult ADHD services and 99 (34%) were generic adult mental health services. Only 12 dedicated services (27%) provided the full range of treatments recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Only half of the dedicated services (55%) and a minority of other services (7%) were reported by all stakeholder groups (P < 0.001, Fisher's exact test).
There is geographical variation in the provision of NHS services for adults with ADHD across the UK, as well as limited availability of treatments in the available services. Differences between stakeholder reports raise questions about equitable access. With increasing numbers of young people with ADHD graduating from children's services, developing evidence-based accessible models of care for adults with ADHD remains an urgent policy and commissioning priority.
Darwin's frogs Rhinoderma darwinii and Rhinoderma rufum are the only known species of amphibians in which males brood their offspring in their vocal sacs. We propose these frogs as flagship species for the conservation of the Austral temperate forests of Chile and Argentina. This recommendation forms part of the vision of the Binational Conservation Strategy for Darwin's Frogs, which was launched in 2018. The strategy is a conservation initiative led by the IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group, which in 2017 convened 30 governmental, non-profit and private organizations from Chile, Argentina and elsewhere. Darwin's frogs are iconic examples of the global amphibian conservation crisis: R. rufum is categorized as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct) on the IUCN Red List, and R. darwinii as Endangered. Here we articulate the conservation planning process that led to the development of the conservation strategy for these species and present its main findings and recommendations. Using an evidence-based approach, the Binational Conservation Strategy for Darwin's Frogs contains a comprehensive status review of Rhinoderma spp., including critical threat analyses, and proposes 39 prioritized conservation actions. Its goal is that by 2028, key information gaps on Rhinoderma spp. will be filled, the main threats to these species will be reduced, and financial, legal and societal support will have been achieved. The strategy is a multi-disciplinary, transnational endeavour aimed at ensuring the long-term viability of these unique frogs and their particular habitat.
Consumer willingness to pay (WTP) for yogurt attributes was evaluated using a survey targeted to be nationally representative within the United States. A novel approach was used to allow for self-selection into the choice experiment for commonly purchased types of yogurt, either Greek or traditional, based on what consumers purchase. They were willing to pay a positive amount for requiring pasture access and not permitting dehorning/disbudding (which references the removal of horns or horn buds) for both traditional and Greek yogurt. Respondents had positive WTP for Greek yogurt labeled free of high-fructose corn syrup and a higher WTP for low-fat yogurt when compared to nonfat for both yogurt types.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in neurogenesis and in the protection against oxidative damage and neuronal apoptosis. After exercise, there is an increased expression of this myokine, especially in skeletal muscle and brain. Low BDNF levels have been described in neurodegenerative diseases. Alcoholics show both muscle atrophy and brain atrophy. Thus, this study was performed in order to analyze serum BDNF levels among alcoholics and their associations with brain atrophy and muscle strength.
Serum BDNF values were determined to 82 male alcoholics and 27 age-matched controls, and compared with handgrip strength, with the presence of brain atrophy, assessed by computed tomography, and with the intensity of alcoholism and liver function derangement.
BDNF levels and handgrip strength were significantly lower among patients. Handgrip strength was correlated with BDNF values, both in the whole population and in alcoholics, especially in patients over 59 years of age. BDNF was poorly related to liver dysfunction but showed no relationship with brain atrophy or age.
Chronic alcoholics show decreased BDNF serum levels that are related to muscle function impairment rather than to age, brain atrophy, liver dysfunction, or the amount of ethanol consumed.
The current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has a great impact worldwide. Healthcare workers play an essential role and are one of the most exposed groups. Information about the psychosocial impact on healthcare workers is limited.
3109 healthcare workers completed a national, internet-based, cross-sectional 45-item survey between 9 and 19 April 2020. The objective is to assess the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spanish healthcare workers. A Psychological Stress and Adaptation at work Score (PSAS) was defined combining four modified versions of validated psychological assessment tests (A) Healthcare Stressful Test, (B) Coping Strategies Inventory, (C) Font-Roja Questionnaire and (D) Trait Meta-Mood Scale.
The highest psychosocial impact was perceived in Respiratory Medicine, the mean (S.D.) PSAS was 48.3 (13.6) and Geriatrics 47.6 (16.4). Higher distress levels were found in the geographical areas with the highest incidence of COVID-19 (>245.5 cases per 100 000 people), PSAS 46.8 (15.2); p < 0.001. The least stress respondents were asymptomatic workers PSAS, 41.3 (15.4); p < 0.001, as well as those above 60 years old, PSAS, 37.6 (16); p < 0.001. Workers who needed psychological therapy and did not receive it, were more stressed PSAS 52.5 (13.6) than those who did not need it PSAS 39.7 (13.9); p < 0.001.
The psychological impact in healthcare workers in Spain during COVID-19 emergency has been studied. The stress perceived is parallel to the number of cases per 100 000 people. Psychotherapy could have a major role to mitigate the experimented stress level.
Although dried orange pulp (DOP) may conveniently replace cereals in ruminant diets, few studies have considered similar diet substitution for goats. We hypothesised that DOP could replace cereal-based concentrate in goat diets without detrimental effects on growth performance and carcass quality of suckling kids and milk performance and blood biochemical parameters of dams in early lactation. We also hypothesised that DOP substitution may increase the levels of antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds and vitamin E, in milk and improve its total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Therefore, 44 primiparous Payoya dairy goats were allocated to three experimental groups, each fed a different diet: control (CD, n = 14) based on a commercial concentrate with alfalfa hay as forage; and DOP40 (n = 16) in which 40% and DOP80 (n = 14) in which 80% of the cereal in the concentrate were replaced by DOP. The experiment lasted from the final month of pregnancy to 55 days postpartum. The DOP diets did not affect suckling kids’ carcass quality, but at 28 days, led to improvement in live weight (LW) and average daily gain (ADG) from birth, although no differences were found between DOP40 and DOP80 (for CD, DOP40 and DOP80, LW at 28 days was 8.00, 8.58 and 8.34 kg and ADG was 184, 199 and 195 g/day, respectively). Diet had no significant effect on milk yield (average daily milk yield and total yield at 55 days were 1.66 l/day and 90.6 l, respectively) and commercial and fatty acid composition. Nevertheless, α-tocopherol, total phenolic compound (TPC) and TAC concentration in milk increased with substitution of cereals by DOP (for CD, DOP40 and DOP80, concentration of α-tocopherol was 21.7, 32.8 and 42.3 μg/100 g, TPCs was 63.5, 84.1 and 102 mg gallic acid equivalents/l, and TAC was 6.63, 11.1 and 12.8 μmol Trolox equivalents/ml, respectively). Every plasma biochemistry parameter considered was within reference values for healthy goats; therefore, no pathological effect was detected for these variables due to dietary treatment. However, DOP diets caused a reduction in plasmatic creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase, implying reduced oxidative damage to muscles. In conclusion, DOP may be an interesting alternative to cereals in early lactation goat diets for increasing farmers’ income and the healthy antioxidant capacity of milk.