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Different types of biogenic remains, ranging from siliceous algae to carbonate precipitates, accumulate in the sediments of lakes and other aquatic ecosystems. Unicellular algae called diatoms, which form a siliceous test or frustule, are an ecologically and biogeochemically important group of organisms in aquatic environments and are often preserved in lake or marine sediments. When diatoms accumulate in large numbers in sediments, the fossilized remains can form diatomite. In sedimentological literature, “diatomite” is defined as a friable, light-coloured, sedimentary rock with a diatom content of at least 50%, however, in the Quaternary science literature diatomite is commonly used as a description of a sediment type that contains a “large” quantity of diatom frustules without a precise description of diatom abundance. Here we pose the question: What is diatomite? What quantity of diatoms define a sediment as diatomite? Is it an uncompacted sediment or a compacted sediment? We provide a short overview of prior practices and suggest that sediment with more than 50% of sediment weight comprised of diatom SiO2 and having high (>70%) porosity is diatomaceous ooze if unconsolidated and diatomite if consolidated. Greater burial depth and higher temperatures result in porosity loss and recrystallization into porcelanite, chert, and pure quartz.
An abstract system of congruences describes a way of partitioning a space into finitely many pieces satisfying certain congruence relations. Examples of abstract systems of congruences include paradoxical decompositions and
-divisibility of actions. We consider the general question of when there are realizations of abstract systems of congruences satisfying various measurability constraints. We completely characterize which abstract systems of congruences can be realized by nonmeager Baire measurable pieces of the sphere under the action of rotations on the
-sphere. This answers a question by Wagon. We also construct Borel realizations of abstract systems of congruences for the action of
. The combinatorial underpinnings of our proof are certain types of decomposition of Borel graphs into paths. We also use these decompositions to obtain some results about measurable unfriendly colorings.
The use of cover crops in soybean production systems has increased in recent years. There are many questions surrounding cover crops—specifically about benefits to crop production and most effective herbicides for spring termination. No studies evaluating cover crop termination have been conducted across a wide geographic area, to our knowledge. Therefore, field experiments were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in Arkansas, Indiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Wisconsin for spring termination of regionally specific cover crops. Glyphosate-, glufosinate-, and paraquat-containing treatments were applied between April 15 and April 29 in 2016 and April 10 and April 20 in 2017. Visible control of cover crops was determined 28 days after treatment. Glyphosate-containing herbicide treatments were more effective than paraquat- and glufosinate-containing treatments, providing 71% to 97% control across all site years. Specifically, glyphosate at 1.12 kg ha−1 applied alone or with 2,4-D at 0.56 kg ha−1, saflufenacil at 0.025 kg ha−1, or clethodim at 0.56 kg ha−1 provided the most effective control on all grass cover crop species. Glyphosate-, paraquat-, or glufosinate-containing treatments were generally most effective on broadleaf cover crop species when applied with 2,4-D or dicamba. Results from this research indicate that proper herbicide selection is crucial to successfully terminate cover crops in the spring.
Recent reforms in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, prioritise adoption over long-term foster care. While previous research has examined motivation to foster, less is known about the interest by the general public in adoption from out-of-home care. A general sample of the NSW public (N = 1030) completed an online survey about adoption practices and their willingness to consider adopting from out-of-home care, with background questions on perceived social support and life satisfaction. Barriers to pursuing adoption were identified, including concerns about the characteristics of the child related to their experiences of care and personal impacts including financial costs. Availability of post-adoption supports was viewed positively as increasing interest in adoption. General Linear Model univariate analyses identified that likelihood of considering adoption was primarily predicted by younger age, knowing someone who had been adopted as a child, actively practicing religion, living in the city rather than a regional area and higher life satisfaction. Customised marketing campaigns can target people more likely to consider adoption, with messages that resonate with their social and psychological characteristics. There is also a need for policy changes to ensure adequate provision of post-adoption support.
In recent years, the use of cover crops has increased in U.S. crop production systems. An important aspect of successful cover crop establishment is the preceding crop and herbicide program, because some herbicides have the potential to persist in the soil for several months. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate the sensitivity of cover crops to common residual herbicides used in soybean production. The same field experiment was conducted in 2016 in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Tennessee, and Wisconsin, and repeated in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, and Missouri in 2017 to evaluate the potential of residual soybean herbicides to carryover and reduce cover crop establishment. Herbicides applied during the soybean growing season included acetochlor; acetochlor plus fomesafen; chlorimuron plus thifensulfuron; fomesafen; fomesafen plus S-metolachlor followed by acetochlor; imazethapyr; pyroxasulfone; S-metolachlor; S-metolachlor plus fomesafen; sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor; sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor followed by fomesafen plus S-metolachlor; and sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor followed by fomesafen plus S-metolachlor followed by acetochlor. Across all herbicide treatments, the sensitivity of cover crops to herbicide residues in the fall, from greatest to least, was forage radish = turnip > annual ryegrass = winter oat = triticale > cereal rye = Austrian winter pea = hairy vetch = wheat > crimson clover. Fomesafen (applied 21 and 42 days after planting [(DAP]); chlorimuron plus thifensulfuron and pyroxasulfone applied 42 DAP; sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor followed by fomesafen plus S-metolachlor; and sulfentrazone plus S-metolachlor followed by fomesafen plus S-metolachlor followed by acetochlor caused the highest visual ground cover reduction to cover crop species at the fall rating. Study results indicate cover crops are most at risk when following herbicide applications in soybean containing certain active ingredients such as fomesafen, but overall there is a fairly low risk of cover crop injury from residual soybean herbicides applied in the previous soybean crop.
Love is political. Not political in the sense of governments or elections – though we would argue that such institutions do regulate love – but in a broader sense. In her book, Sexual Politics, Kate Millett (1970) used the term “politics” to refer to the ways in which people jockey for power within groups. We borrow this approach as we address the issue of love.
The Anthem Handbook of Screen Theory' offers a unique and progressive survey of screen theory and how it can be applied to a range of moving-image texts and sociocultural contexts. Focusing on the "handbook" angle, the book includes only original essays from two primary sources: established authors in the field and new scholars on the cutting edge of helping screen theory evolve for the twenty-first-century vistas of new media, social shifts and geopolitical change. The main purpose of this method is to guarantee a strong foundation and clarity for the canon of film theory, while also situating it as part of a larger genealogy of art theories and critical thought, and to reveal the relevance and utility of film theories and concepts to a wide array of expressive practices and specified arguments.
Composed and written with force and conviction, the essays in this collection attest to the continued pertinence and promise of film theory. Born of cinema itself, whether in view of the Lumiere Brothers's Workers Exiting a Factory or Bill Morrison's Dawson City: Frozen Time, theory begs us to consider how and why we commit ourselves to study cinema and visual media. And for what ends: examining at a gamut of cinemas from the origins of the seventh art to the digital age, each of the authors in the pages above discerns issues that make theory contemporary. Mindful of film history, they show how the moving image remains a compelling forum for dialogue and exchange over issues of a first magnitude: what it means to live in a world that by and large we experience on screens or through moving images; but also, on how visual media might shape the future of cognition as such. The authors remind us that with theory, we are enabled to consider the force and fragility of cinema: in what ways the medium is endowed with uncanny power and yet, how ephemeral and passing it can be. Demonstrating that theory rescues cinema from itself without the promise of redemption, the authors employ a variety of concepts and methods that turn films into unsettling critical objects.
At the risk of repeating what Hunter Vaughan notes cogently in the Preface, and what in different ways the authors have shown in their contributions: the foundations of theory are strong, and the directions it is taking bear untold promise. Several major of lines of inquiry draw their way through the sum of the essays. First, as historians of the present are quick to remind us, since 2007, following the implementation of the cell phone and the iPad, the advent of Facebook and the growth of the internet, we live in the world in ways inalterably other than those we had known even a decade ago. We can posit that the great tradition of ‘going to the movies’ is long gone and that the movie palace is now either a museum or a photographic image.
Apparatus theory claims to study the “machineries” of the seventh art. Dealing not so much with cameras, projectors, film stock, the design of iPads, editing programs and applications than the relations that viewers sustain with the medium, it lays stress on psychic and social mechanisms that shape the experience of cinema. Considered in a broad sense, it accounts for the power that film holds in respect to the world in which it operates or is deployed. Adepts of apparatus theory consider how cinema is viewed, what it does to the imagination, and in what ways it gets consumed, remembered, classified and even forgotten. For enthusiasts of cinema trained in psychoanalysis, apparatus is understood as a complex process of libidinal exchange between the perceiving spectator and the various screens on which moving images are perceived and registered, which include both the surfaces on which films are projected and the psychic devices that sift the impressions we gather from the experience of viewing a film. For the sociologist and historian of the seventh art, apparatus can refer to a broadly defined economic sphere in which of film is construed to play a significant role in the construction, management and practice of everyday life, in short, as a mechanism having purchase on the lives and minds of collective groups of moviegoers. For those who would call themselves “ordinary” or gardenvariety viewers of cinema, apparatus theory deals with how enthusiasts and cinephiles control, mediate or even politicize their passion for film.
For the sake of brevity it can be said, grosso modo, that in its purview of the mental economies that drive the medium the theory gives rise, first, to a critical appreciation of cinema and, second, to a creative doubt prompting us to be aware of why and wherefore cinema functions in our sentient lives.
The contexts in which the idea of apparatus takes shape tell much about what it was, how it has evolved and, perhaps, where it is and how it works today. Officially born in France in the turmoil and conflict of May 1968, it reflected on the political and aesthetic virtues of theory — in other words, on how film, which otherwise belonged to the industry of capital, could be interpreted to acquire political and philosophical mettle enough to work contrary to consumerism.