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Three broad social factors – childhood adversity, immigration, and urban living – are robustly associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. To date, however, there is no consensus on what it is about these phenomena that raises the risk of psychotic illness. In 2005, J. P. Selten and E. Cantor-Graae proposed a “social defeat” hypothesis according to which the social determinants of schizophrenia are best characterized as experiences of social subordination. In recent years, the social-defeat hypothesis has been broadened to include experiences of social exclusion. In this chapter, we review the different versions of the social defeat hypothesis and argue that it fails to account for the urban effect. We further argue for the potential utility of paying greater attention to social science when theorizing about the social determinants of schizophrenia.
The neuroimaging era has brought an increasingly refined understanding of adolescent brain maturation, yielding insight into the protracted development of social cognition, learning, and executive function beyond childhood. These data have been applied in multiple domains of everyday life, including education. Adolescent brains have emerged as a theater of moral panic over the implications of social media on the one hand and income inequality on the other for mental health, social cohesion, and individual and community life chances. In this setting, neuroscience has been invoked to account for adolescent vulnerability and to develop interventions to mitigate behavioral problems and mental illness. These include the introduction into school curricula of mindfulness-based stress reduction, resilience training, “brain-based” pedagogy, and a neuroanatomical lexicon of introspection in which kids are encouraged to identify experiential states with brain regions. “Neuroeducation” represents a constellation of fluid alliances between the education profession, Silicon Valley tech solutionists, and the human potential movement. Cognitive neuroscience plays a notional role, chiefly via proponents’ invocation of developmental plasticity as physiological justification for interventions that are often based on preliminary research and remain wanting in clinical support. In this essay we explore neuroeducation through the lens of critical neuroscience.
Islamophobia and the Law is a foundational volume of critical scholarship on the emerging form of bigotry widely known as Islamophobia. This book brings together leading legal scholars to explore the emergence and rise of Islamophobia after the 9/11 terror attacks, particularly how the law brings about state-sponsored Islamophobia and acts as a dynamic catalyst of private Islamophobia and vigilante violence against Muslims. The first book of its kind, it is a critical read for scholars and practitioners, advocates and students interested in deepening their knowledge of the subject matter. This collection addresses Islamophobia in race, immigration and citizenship, criminal law and national security, in the use of courts to advance anti-Muslim projects and in law and society.
Approximately, 1.7 million individuals in the United States have been infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This has disproportionately impacted adults, but many children have been infected and hospitalised as well. To date, there is not much information published addressing the cardiac workup and monitoring of children with COVID-19. Here, we share the approach to the cardiac workup and monitoring utilised at a large congenital heart centre in New York City, the epicentre of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States.
Children of alcohol dependent individuals are affected by disturbed parent-child relationship and exhibit externalizing symptoms, arrhythmicity, negative mood and low persistence.
To assess the temperament and resilience of children of alcohol dependent individuals and to study their relationship with the father's severity and problems of alcohol intake.
To assess the psychological profile of children of alcohol dependent individuals.
Cross-sectional study conducted in a tertiary care centre from January to August 2015. Severity of alcohol dependence in father and problems related to it was assessed using ‘short alcohol dependence data’ and ‘alcohol problems questionnaire’; the temperament and resilience of their children (n = 31) was assessed using ‘temperament measurement schedule’ and ‘strengths and difficulties questionnaire’ respectively.
The sample comprised of 48% boys and 52% girls with mean age (SD) of 9.32 (3.02) years. Eighty-one percent belonged to lower socioeconomic status. Their fathers’ mean age (SD) was 37.13(4.9) years and duration of alcohol dependence being 16.32 (5.7) years, average use/day being 19.19 (14.9) units with moderate (45.2%) to high (41.9%) dependence. Significant association was observed between severity of alcohol dependence and temperamental domain-threshold of responsiveness (χ2 = 17.272, P value = 0.002) (Fig. 1). The average units of alcohol consumed/day were a significant predictor for the presence of emotional problems in the child (OR = 30.12; 95%CI 1.33–677.86).
There's a significant association between father's alcohol use and child's psychopathology which indicates the need for preventive and curative mental health measures.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Species of the allocreadiid genus Creptotrema are parasites of freshwater fishes in the Americas. Species in the genus possess one pair of muscular oral lobes on the oral sucker. Currently, the genus contains eight species, six distributed in South America, one in Middle America and one in North America. Genetic data are only available for the North American species, Creptotrema funduli, a parasite of fundulids originally described from Oneida Lake, New York State. In this study, we obtained 28S ribosomal DNA sequences of trematodes morphologically similar to Creptotrema agonostomi from the mountain mullet, Dajaus monticola, across a wide geographical range in Middle America. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that (1) the genus Creptotrema, as currently conceived, is not monophyletic; (2) the allocreadiids in mountain mullets should be re-allocated in the genus Pseudoparacreptotrema; and (3) the allocreadiid trematodes from D. monticola across Middle America represent four morphologically similar species, three of which can be distinguished genetically. These three new species are described herein using an integrative taxonomy approach. We contend that accurate estimates of species diversity and phylogenetic relationships among allocreadiids, and most likely other species of trematodes, necessarily require an integrative taxonomy approach that should consider at least DNA sequences and scanning electron microscopy.
Controlled degradation of hydrogels enables several applications of these materials, including controlled drug and cell release applications and directed growth of neural networks. These applications motivate the need of a simulation framework for modeling controlled degradation in hydrogels. We develop a Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) framework for hydrogel degradation. As a model hydrogel, we prepare a network formed by end-linking tetra-arm polyethylene glycol precursors. We model bond breaking during degradation of this hydrogel as a stochastic process. The fraction of degradable bonds follows first order degradation kinetics. We characterize the rate of mass loss during degradation process.
In this paper, we consider exponentiated location-scale model and obtain several ordering results between extreme order statistics in various senses. Under majorization type partial order-based conditions, the comparisons are established according to the usual stochastic order, hazard rate order and reversed hazard rate order. Multiple-outlier models are considered. When the number of components are equal, the results are obtained based on the ageing faster order in terms of the hazard rate and likelihood ratio orders. For unequal number of components, we develop comparisons according to the usual stochastic order, hazard rate order, and likelihood ratio order. Numerical examples are considered to illustrate the results.