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Fifteen species of stylasterids from the late Miocene (Messinian) are reported from the Carboneras region of southeastern Spain. Eleven of these species are described as new: Lepidopora fistulosa, Pliobothrus striatus, Pliobothrus nielseni, Distichopora patula, Stylaster (Group A) digitiformis, Stylaster multicavus, Stylaster tuberosus, Conopora forticula, Conopora alloporoides, Crypthelia zibrowii, and Crypthelia ingens. The other four have been identified as species previously described from the Recent fauna. On the basis of bathymetric ranges of similar living stylasterids and other associated fauna, the paleodepth of this fauna is estimated to be from the upper bathyal zone (200–600 m). All fossil stylasterid records, worldwide, are reviewed, resulting in four new combinations and the transfer of one species to the Bryozoa. The species reported herein increase the known number of named fossil stylasterids from 24 to 32 species.
The legal theory of the Scottish Enlightenment is marked by the engagement of the legal profession generally in theorizing, with a strong interest in history and law, leading on to investigations of a proto-anthropological and proto–sociological nature. This led to a move away from an emphasis on legislation to one on development of the law through the formulation of new rules through the decision of specific cases. The legal theorizing of the Scottish Enlightenment did not lead to codification projects, but favoured piecemeal incremental reform of the law through the operation of the courts in the elaboration of law in their decisions and opinions.
Using quantitative and qualitative research designs, respectively, two studies investigated why countries make different health technology assessment (HTA) drug reimbursement recommendations. Building on these, the objective of this study was to (a) develop a conceptual framework integrating the factors explaining these decisions, (b) explore their relationship and (c) assess if they are congruent, complementary or discrepant. A parallel convergent mixed methods design was used. Countries included in both previous studies were selected (England, Sweden, Scotland and France). A conceptual framework that integrated and organised the factors explaining the decisions from the two studies was developed. Relationships between factors were explored and illustrated through case studies. The framework distinguishes macro-level factors from micro-level ones. Only two of the factors common to both studies were congruent, while two others reached discrepant conclusions (stakeholder input and external review of the evidence processes). The remaining factors identified within one or both studies were complementary. Bringing together these findings contributed to generating a more complete picture of why countries make different HTA recommendations. Results were mostly complementary, explaining and enhancing each other. We conclude that differences often result from a combination of factors, with an important component relating to what occurs during the deliberative process.
In vivo positron emission tomography (PET) using [C11]-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B ([C11]PiB) has previously been shown to detect amyloid-β (Aβ) in late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) brain; however, the sensitivity of this technique for detecting β-amyloidosis in autosomal dominant Alzheimer disease (ADAD) has not been systematically investigated. To validate [C11]PiB PET as a useful biomarker of β-amyloidosis, we measured the cortical and regional standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) in 16 ADAD and 15 LOAD cases and compared them with histopathologic measures of β-amyloidosis in postmortem brain. The PiB-PET data were obtained between 40–70 min after bolus injection of ∼15 mCi of [11C]PiB. MRI and PiB-PET images were co-registered and SUVRs were generated for several brain regions. Using Aβ immunohistochemistry (10D5, Eli Lilly), the burden of Aβ plaques was quantified in 16 regions of interest using an area fraction fractionator probe (Stereo Investigator, MicroBrightfield, VT). There were regional variations in Aβ plaque burden with highest densities observed in the neocortical areas and the striatum. On spearman correlations, in vivo PiB-PET correlated with postmortem Aβ plaque burden in both LOAD and ADAD, with strongest correlations seen in neocortical areas. In summary, [C11]PiB-PET has utility as a biomarker in both ADAD and LOAD.
This presentation will enable the learner to:
1.Discuss how PET-PiB beta-amyloid imaging is used as a potential biomarker of Alzheimer disease (AD)
2.Correlate postmortem neuropathologic evidence of beta-amyloidosis with PET-PiB data, and learn that PET-PiB is a potentially useful tool to detect beta-amyloidosis in presymptomatic and symptomatic individuals
We introduce a new modelling framework to explain socio-economic differences in mortality in terms of an affluence index that combines information on individual wealth and income. The model is illustrated using data on older Danish males over the period 1985–2012 reported in the Statistics Denmark national register database. The model fits the historical mortality data well, captures their key features, generates smoothed death rates that allow us to work with a larger number of sub-groups than has previously been considered feasible, and has plausible projection properties.
This paper describes a model of electron energization and cyclotron-maser emission applicable to astrophysical magnetized collisionless shocks. It is motivated by the work of Begelman, Ergun and Rees [Astrophys. J. 625, 51 (2005)] who argued that the cyclotron-maser instability occurs in localized magnetized collisionless shocks such as those expected in blazar jets. We report on recent research carried out to investigate electron acceleration at collisionless shocks and maser radiation associated with the accelerated electrons. We describe how electrons accelerated by lower-hybrid waves at collisionless shocks generate cyclotron-maser radiation when the accelerated electrons move into regions of stronger magnetic fields. The electrons are accelerated along the magnetic field and magnetically compressed leading to the formation of an electron velocity distribution having a horseshoe shape due to conservation of the electron magnetic moment. Under certain conditions the horseshoe electron velocity distribution function is unstable to the cyclotron-maser instability [Bingham and Cairns, Phys. Plasmas 7, 3089 (2000); Melrose, Rev. Mod. Plasma Phys. 1, 5 (2017)].
Increasing attention is currently focused on the generation of characteristic x-ray by proton irradiation. This has the advantage of yielding “clean” x-ray- i. e. free from background brerasstrahlung radiation, from even the lightest elements. The disadvantage is that the yields are naturally much lower than those produced by electrons of the same energy. A recent study has extended characteristic x-ray production to a variety of heavy ions and has shown that the cross- sections for the production of clean x-rays are often higher , by as much as several orders of magnitude, than those produced by protons of the same energy. In addition, there has emerged a further advantage, viz. the ability of specially chosen heavy ions to excite characteristic x-ray from a particular element in a selective manner. Since heavy ions penetrate only a few hundred Angstroms in to most solids, the phenomenon can be used as the basis of a technique for the examination of surface deposits, or to measure depth distributions of impurities. For example, Kr ions can be used t o determine the range distribution of antimony which had been implanted in to silicon at 100 keV. The antimony concentration was determined as a function of ∼ 150 Å steps, and was found to exhibit a maximum concentration of ∼ 1 part in 103 of silicon at 450 Å below the surface, falling to zero concentration at ∼2000 Å a depth. In the past, in order to obtain the required degree of sensitivity, such range determinations have relied on radio active tracer techniques.
An entirely new type of proportional counter has been developed during the course of these studies. This instrument, because of its special construction, can be positioned very close to targets in non-dispersive studies, so as to collect the highest possible fraction of emitted x-ray. It incorporates a replaceable anode unit, together with a built- in miniature head amplifier, and exhibits extremely good performance, particularly for ultra-soft x-ray. In addition, rotation of a dial on the end of the counter body allows alteration of the active gas volume during operation, and so permits tuning into x-rays of a particular energy.
This paper updates Living with Mortality published in 2006. It describes how the longevity risk transfer market has developed over the intervening period, and, in particular, how insurance-based solutions – buy-outs, buy-ins and longevity insurance – have triumphed over capital markets solutions that were expected to dominate at the time. Some capital markets solutions – longevity-spread bonds, longevity swaps, q-forwards and tail-risk protection – have come to market, but the volume of business has been disappointingly low. The reason for this is that when market participants compare the index-based solutions of the capital markets with the customised solutions of insurance companies in terms of basis risk, credit risk, regulatory capital, collateral and liquidity, the former perform on balance less favourably despite a lower potential cost. We discuss the importance of stochastic mortality models for forecasting future longevity and examine some applications of these models, e.g. determining the longevity risk premium and estimating regulatory capital relief. The longevity risk transfer market is now beginning to recognise that there is insufficient capacity in the insurance and reinsurance industries to deal fully with demand and new solutions for attracting capital markets investors are now being examined – such as longevity-linked securities and reinsurance sidecars.
The t-test is a work horse of a lot of statistical analysis in HCI. There are a lot of myths about how robust it is to deviations from normality and other assumptions. However, when faced with practical data, particularly those coming from usability studies, the claims of robustness do not stand up. This chapter reevaluates the t-test as a test for an effect on the location of data. This leads to considering robust measures of location, such as trimmed or Winsorized means and associated Yuen–Welch test as a robust alternative to the traditional t-test.
Non-parametric tests, in particular rank-based tests, are often proposed as robust alternatives to parametric tests like t-tests when the assumptions of parametric tests are violated. However, non-parametric tests have their own assumptions which, when not considered, can lead to misinterpretation and unsound conclusions based on those tests. This chapter explores these problems and differentiates between the more and less robust non-parametric tests. Modern robust alternative non-parametric tests are suggested to replace the less robust tests.
Traditional statistical testing, sometimes called null hypothesis significance testing (NHST), and the use of p-values has come under strong criticism. This chapter looks at the social issues of achieving significance in statistics that has led to the problems of NHST. It also discusses, though, how the framework of severe testing provides a way to understand NHST as a means of uniting experiments, statistics and evidence for research ideas. When viewed this way, NHST can still be an important approach to data analysis in HCI.