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[Editors’ Note: We were very pleased that John Burrow was able to contribute a chapter to this volume, one that he had written but never published. That he had a serious, ongoing interest in Charles's work is evidenced by his 2017 article in The Chaucer Review (see Select Publications). Sadly, John passed away very early in the editing process. We have included the chapter he gave us with minimal editorial intervention.]
French prince Charles d’Orléans composed his English Book of Love (Fortunes Stabilnes) in the course of the twenty-five years in England that followed his capture at Agincourt in 1415. This sequence of love narratives and lyrics falls into three parts, clearly marked off from each other by two dreams. The first part concerns the poet's love for a lady referred to as ‘Beauty’ and concludes with ballades lamenting that lady's untimely death. There follows the first of the two dreams (2540–2635), in which Charles encounters Age. Age persuades him to give up all thought of further loving, and accordingly Charles retires to his manor ‘No Care’, where he marks his retirement from love by composing for the benefit of others a set of little love poems in the form of roundels. The results of this exercise make up the middle part of the Book. In the ensuing second dream (4736–5190) Charles encounters Venus and Fortune, a vision that prompts him to resume his own life as a lover; and the whole work ends with a further sequence of ballades addressed to his new lady.
When Charles at last returned to France, in 1440, he evidently left these English writings behind, but he took with him his personal copy of the poems that he wrote in French during his captivity. The first part of this French manuscript (pages 1 to 121) corresponds closely to the first part of the English one, including also the dream of Age and the poet's consequent retirement to No Care, ‘Nonchaloir’ in the French. Comparison between them shows that the English poems are versions made from the French, as if Charles amused himself during his captivity by rendering verses first composed in his native language into the language of his captors. However, the French work has nothing like the tripartite structure of the English.
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Panic disorder is widespread in Australia, often in combination with other psychiatric conditions such as agoraphobia or major depression. Pharmacotherapy for panic disorder in Australia commenced with benzodiazepines, and later progressed to tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). More recently, treatment has moved towards use of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are effective and better tolerated. Paroxetine is the first drug of this class to receive approval for treatment of panic disorder in Australia.
In contrast to the visual, auditory or olfactory senses, the sense of touch (a form of mechanoreception) has been relatively neglected in primate studies. Over the last few decades, our understanding of the ecology of touch, or how an animal explores and exploits its environment using tactile cues (or tactile information), has improved in both primates and non-primate mammals. Touch can take many forms in mammals, including vibrissal (or whisker) touch, hand touch (especially in glabrous fingertips) and skin touch. Comparative studies exploring the relative sensitivities of touch (e.g. vibrissae/face, hands, feet) in primates and non-primate mammals are often challenging without extensive behavioural training (Bauer et al., 2012; Dehnhardt and Dücker, 1996; Dehnhardt and Kaminski, 1995) or complex anatomical studies (Marshall et al., 2014; Mattson and Marshall, 2016a, 2016b; Peterson et al., 1998). We have had success in using anatomical and skeletal proxies to investigate the ecology and evolution of vibrissal touch. Indeed, there are established ecological correlates between touch sensory-end organs, like number and movement, and skeletal landmarks linked with touch acuity (Muchlinski, 2010a; Muchlinski et al., 2018). It is also possible to connect vibrissa movement to differences in behaviour (Dehnhardt and Kaminski, 1995; Grant et al., 2018; Kemble and Lewis, 1982; Muchlinski, 2010b). We have even modelled the evolution of vibrissae, discussing our findings in the context of touch (Muchlinski et al., 2013, 2018). In this chapter, we examine the ecology of face touch (i.e. vibrissal touch) among the lorisids using the above-mentioned lines of evidence. We suggest that the sensory ecology of the lorisids may be more specialised and novel than we initially thought.
Toothcombs have evolved independently in various mammalian lineages, including primates, scandentians and dermopterans, but the presence of a six-toothed toothcomb composed of four lower incisors and two canines (I1, I2 and C1, bilaterally) is a distinctive feature of extant strepsirrhine primates (Yamashita, 2017). There is some variation within the group with respect to the nature of the anterior teeth: indriids have a reduced toothcomb as a result of losing the lower canines (Gingerich, 1977), whereas Daubentonia has only one enlarged, ever-growing incisor, and no canines, in each quadrant (Quinn and Wilson, 2004). Nonetheless, it seems clear that a six-toothed toothcomb is primitive for Strepsirrhini (Hill, 1953b; Martin, 1990; Szalay and Delson, 1979). The earliest fossil strepsirrhine that indisputably possesses a toothcomb is Karanisia clarki (Seiffert et al., 2003), therefore the appearance of this trait can be established by as late as 36.9 million years ago (Mya). Molecular dates for the divergence of crown Strepsirrhini are generally much earlier than this (49.8–77.0 Mya; Pozzi et al., 2014b; Yang and Yoder, 2003, and sources cited therein). If the toothcomb was present in the common ancestor of the group, it could therefore be expected to have appeared much earlier than its first record in K. clarki. However, the fossil record for crown strepsirrhines remains very limited, which means that K. clarki provides the first window into the adaptive context in which the toothcomb evolved.
The first primate-like mammals to appear in the fossil record date to the earliest Palaeocene (Clemens, 2004; Fox and Scott, 2011; Silcox and López-Torres, 2017; Van Valen and Sloan, 1965), and the first primates of modern aspect (euprimates) do not appear until the latest Palaeocene/earliest Eocene (Morse et al., 2019; Ni et al., 2013; Rose et al., 2012; Sigé et al., 1990; Silcox et al., 2017; Smith et al., 2006). However, the most recent molecular estimates for the last common ancestor (LCA) of all living primates suggest that the order originated at some point between the late Cretaceous and the early Palaeocene (approximately between 60 and 70 Mya; Andrews et al., 2016; Herrera and Dávalos, 2016; Seiffert et al., 2018). Later, between 42 and 55 Mya (according to the same sources for molecular dates), Strepsirrhini split into the progenitors of the infraorders Lemuriformes and Lorisiformes (throughout this chapter we use the taxonomy established by Grubb et al., 2003). The Lemuriformes went on to radiate into the vast array of morphologically diverse living and extinct lemurs located on the island of Madagascar, and the lorisiforms split into two families: Lorisidae (pottos, angwantibos, slender lorises and slow lorises) and Galagidae, the bushbabies (Covert, 2002; Martin, 1990; Rasmussen and Nekaris, 1998).
This book started as a conversation in New Orleans back in 2016. A morphologist and a primatologist were sitting at the American Association of Physical Anthropologists annual meeting, bemoaning the scant presentations on lorises (slow lorises, slender lorises, angwantibos and pottos) relative to galagos, lemurs, monkeys and apes. Not only where were the talks on these primates, but where were the books on lorisids? After a few minutes of this talk, we decided it was time to see to it ourselves. Using a cocktail napkin and later a more respectable legal pad, we started sketching out what we would each want to see in a collected, edited volume devoted to what we know about lorises, some of the least understood primates living today. What resulted from that afternoon in a New Orleans bar is this edited volume. The scope is intentionally broad and is primarily divided into sections on evolution and morphology, behaviour and conservation. We also purposefully focused on soliciting short contributions, set as boxes within the text, from young authors doing fieldwork in Asian range countries, places where scientific study and conservation efforts on Loris and Nycticebus, the Asian lorises, is producing previously unknown data on population density and specific challenges to conservation efforts.
To (i) describe the adaptation of the Short Food Survey (SFS) for assessing the dietary intake of children (2–5 years) during attendance at Early Childhood Education and Care (SFS-ECEC); (ii) determine the acceptability and feasibility of the SFS-ECEC; and (iii) compare the SFS-ECEC to direct observations for assessing dietary intake of children in care.
The adapted forty-seven-item SFS-ECEC was completed by childcare educators to capture individual child’s usual intake over the past month. Acceptability and feasibility were assessed via educator self-report and completion rates. Mean servings of food groups consumed in accordance with dietary guidelines reported in the SFS-ECEC were compared to those obtained by a single-day direct observation via visual estimation conducted by trained personnel. Mean differences, intra-class correlations, Bland–Altman plots, percentage agreement and Cohen’s κ were examined.
Early Childhood Education and Care, NSW, Australia.
Educators and children.
213 (98·61 %) SFS-ECECs were returned. Acceptability was high with 86·54 % of educators reporting the tool as easy to understand. Mean differences in servings of food groups between the SFS-ECEC and direct observation were statistically significantly different for five out of six foods and ranged 0·08–1·07, with intra-class correlations ranging 0·00–0·21. Agreement between the methods in the classification of children meeting or not meeting dietary guidelines ranged 42·78–93·01 %, with Cohen’s κ ranging −0·03 to 0·14.
The SFS-ECEC is acceptable and feasible for completion by childcare educators. While tool refinement and further validation is warranted, small mean differences suggest the tool may be useful in estimating group-level intakes.
Furry and wide-eyed, lorises and pottos are small, nocturnal primates inhabiting African, Asian and Southeast Asian tropical and subtropical forests. Their likeable appearance, combined with their unusual adaptations - from a marked reduction of the tail to their mostly slow, deliberate locomotion, powerful grasping and, in some species, a venomous bite - has led to a significant rise in research interest in the family Lorisidae over the last decade. Furthermore, lorises in particular have featured frequently in international media largely due to illegal trade, for example as pets. This is the first volume to present a full picture of the breadth of research being undertaken on lorisids to aid future studies as well as conservation efforts. Focusing on five key topics: evolutionary biology, ecomorphology, behavioural ecology, captive management and conservation, this book is a vital read for graduate students and researchers in primatology, biological anthropology, evolutionary biology, animal behaviour and conservation.