To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction patterns has been used to provide microstructural information complementary to conventional X-ray residual stress measurements through a carburized layer containing a maximum vol. 25 % of retained austenite. Layers in a simple specimen were removed incrementally by electropolishing and, at each depth in addition to conventional residual stress measurements in both the martensite and retained austenite, data were collected at ѱ = 0 for Rietveld refinement. The refinements provide accurate values for the lattice parameters in the respective phases that can be related to carbon content and micro-structure. Besides to providing qualitative information concerning the microstructure and possible surface decarburization, the c/a ratio of the martensite potentially offers an independent technique for determining carbon content profiles
Metal matrix composites develop residual strains after consolidation due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the reinforcement fiber and the matrix. X-ray and neutron diffraction measured values for the longitudinal residual stress in the matrix of three titanium MMCs are reported. For thick composites (> 6 plies) the surface stress measured by x-ray diffraction matches that determined by neutron diffraction and therefore represents the stress in the bulk region consisting of the fibers and matrix. For thin sheet composites, the surface values are lower than in the interior and increase as the outer rows of fibers are approached. While a rationale for this behavior has yet to be developed, accounting for composite thickness is important when using x-ray measured values to validate analytic and finite element calculations of the residual stress state.
HUMAN RIGHTS TECTONICS THROUGH AN ISSUE-BASED APPROACH
Joanna Bourke Martignoni, Senior Researcher at the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, Switzerland; Lecturer in Human Rights at the University of Fribourg, Switzerland
This chapter analyses selected examples of the United Nations (UN) treaty-monitoring bodies’ application of an intersectional lens to sexual and reproductive rights issues. While the concept of intersectionality has occupied centre stage in much of the gender and postcolonial studies literature produced since the 1980s, the use of intersectional perspectives by the international human rights mechanisms has a much more recent history.
Intersectionality is both a method of observation and an action-oriented form of practice. It aims to uncover and redress forms of privilege and oppression that remain hidden from view in the single attribute analyses of inequality traditionally used by international and national human rights monitoring mechanisms. The present chapter looks at the way in which the treaty-monitoring bodies are increasingly deploying the concept of intersectionality – both explicitly and implicitly – to address issues of sexual and reproductive rights.
The difficulties inherent in identifying a suitable comparator against whom the presence of discrimination or disadvantage can be assessed are highlighted. In some instances, the treaty bodies have failed to adequately address intersectional factors, such as belonging to an ethnic minority group or being a human rights defender, that have a direct bearing on the realisation of sexual and reproductive rights. In other situations, exemplified in the approach taken by the majority of the Human Rights Committee (HRC) in the Amanda Jane Mellet v Ireland case (2016),it is argued that the misuse of an intersectional comparator may potentially obscure, rather than illuminate, broader gendered power relations.
The chapter concludes with some reflections about the prospects and limitations of intersectional approaches to sexual and reproductive rights and the capacity of the UN human rights monitoring mechanisms to engage in the nuanced, radical and frequently contradictory analyses of inequalities and power relations that such approaches require.
THEORISING AND APPLYING INTERSECTIONAL METHODS
Intersectionality is a form of resistant knowledge developed to unsettle conventional mindsets, challenge oppressive power, think through the full architecture of structural inequalities and asymmetrical life opportunities, and seek a more just world.
Scholars and activists working within the frameworks of critical race feminism and postcolonial studies have long engaged with issues of intersectional oppression. These groups emphasise that gender, ethnicity, disability, age, socio-economic status and other identity characteristics are reflections of political, social and economic power constellations, which promote or limit an individual's enjoyment of rights and capabilities.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterised by recurring crises, hospitalisations, self-harm, suicide attempts, addictions, episodes of depression, anxiety and aggression and lost productivity. The objective of this study is to determine the use of direct health care resources by persons with BPD in Ireland and the corresponding costs.
This prevalence-based micro-costing study was undertaken on a sample of 196 individuals with BPD attending publicly funded mental health services in Ireland. All health care costs were assessed using a resource utilisation questionnaire completed by mental health practitioners. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis, using a Monte Carlo simulation, was performed to examine uncertainty.
Total direct healthcare cost per individual was €10 844 annually (ranging from 5228 to 20 609). Based on a prevalence of 1% and an adult population (18–65 years) of 2.87 million, we derived that there were 28 725 individuals with BPD in Ireland. Total yearly cost of illness was calculated to be up to €311.5 million.
There is a dearth of data on health care resource use and costs of community mental health services in Ireland. The absence of this data is a considerable constraint to research and decision-making in the area of community mental health services. This paper contributes to the limited literature on resource use and costs in community mental health services in Ireland. The absence of productivity loss data (e.g. absenteeism and presenteeism), non-health care costs (e.g. addiction treatment), and indirect costs (e.g. informal care) from study participants is a limitation of this study.
Toward Democracy traces a remarkable journey across two continents. Its aim, as the subtitle indicates, is to chart “the struggle for self-rule” in European and American thought. Its scope and erudition are at once imposing and inspiring. Not only has the author mastered several historical literatures, he also demonstrates considerable knowledge of a range of primary materials spanning ancient, European and American history.
In adolescent sheep, high nutrient intakes to promote rapid maternal growth during pregnancy results in a major restriction in placental growth which leads to a significant reduction in lamb birthweight relative to moderate intake adolescents of equivalent gynaecological age (Wallace et al 1996). Placental hormones play a crucial role in the development, differentiation and function of the mammary gland and we have previously reported that maternal concentrations of progesterone, growth hormone and pregnancy-specific protein B are significantly reduced in high intake dams with growth restricted placentae (Wallace et al 1997 a,b). For newborn lambs, the ingestion of adequate quantities of nutrient dense colostrum is essential to provide fuel for heat production and to ensure absorption of maternal antibodies to give immunological protection against infection. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of nutritionally-mediated placental growth restriction on colostrum yield, nutrient composition and immunoglobulin content.
Examining the political thought of the Irish Revolution poses two distinct problems. First, we need to establish how we should date the Revolution for the purposes of intellectual history. There is no doubting that the 1916 Easter Rising was an event in British and Irish politics, but it was also an event in the world of ideas. Any serious consideration of this episode and its aftermath therefore needs to trace its origins to patterns of thought as well as shifts in affairs, and the two processes do not necessarily coincide. The second requirement for understanding the role of political thought in the Revolution is to reconstruct carefully the actual doctrines articulated and deployed. Irish historians have been reluctant to engage in this process of interpretation. Yet a more searching account of political ideas in the period has the potential to change our approach to the Revolution as a whole.
John Dewey's intellectual career is a remarkable example of sustained involvement across three quarters of a century with the challenge of formulating a philosophy that would engage with the common life. To break into the continuities of his questions and answers is to risk some distortion. Even his last work—for example, his collaboration with Arthur Bentley—involved a reformulation and correction of earlier themes and a constant retrospection at the accumulation of his work. It is clear, nonetheless, that certain phases in his work exhibit particular preoccupations. By focussing, as I shall do here, on the decade that bounded the First World War it is possible to see in sharp relief some problematical aspects of Dewey's longstanding commitment to the definition of a philosophy of praxis.
Using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), it was shown for four different types of carbon that electrode treatments at negative potentials enhance the kinetics of VIV-VV and inhibit the kinetics of VII-VIII while electrode treatments at positive potentials inhibit the kinetics of VIV-VV and enhance the kinetics of VII-VIII. These observations may explain conflicting reports in the literature. The potentials required for activation and deactivation of electrodes were examined in detail. The results suggest that interchanging the positive and negative electrodes in a vanadium flow battery (VFB) would reduce the overpotential at the negative electrode and so improve the performance. This is supported by flow-cell experiments. Thus, periodic catholyte-anolyte interchange, or equivalent alternatives such as battery overdischarge, show promise of improving the voltage efficiency of VFBs.
Magnetic fields are believed to play an important role in the evolution of molecular clouds, from their large scale structure to dense cores, protostellar envelopes, and protoplanetary disks. How important is unclear, and whether magnetic fields are the dominant force driving star formation at any scale is also unclear. In this review we examine the observational data which address these questions, with particular emphasis on high angular resolution observations. Unfortunately the data do not clarify the situation. It is clear that the fields are important, but to what degree we don't yet know. Observations to date have been limited by the sensitivity of available telescopes and instrumentation. In the future ALMA and the SKA in particular should provide great advances in observational studies of magnetic fields, and we discuss which observations are most desirable when they become available.
This article reports on ten new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates from the Chalcolithic period (fifth millennium BC) archaeological type-site of Teleilat Ghassul in Jordan. Early radiocarbon assays from the site proved difficult to integrate with current relative chronological formulations. The ten new AMS dates and follow-up enquiries connected with the early assays suggest that the original dates were up to 500 years too early. A necessary reformulation of regional relative chronologies now views the Ghassul sequence falling between Late Neolithic Jericho and the Beersheban Chalcolithic.
This article reports on 10 new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates from early phases of the Early Bronze Age at the long-lived settlement of Pella (modern Tabaqat Fahl) in the north Jordan Valley. The new AMS dates fall between 3400 and 2800 cal BC, and support a recent suggestion that all Chalcolithic period occupation had ceased by 3800/3700 cal BC at the latest (Bourke et al. 2004b). Other recently published Early Bronze Age 14C data strongly supports this revisionist scenario, suggesting that the earliest phase of the Early Bronze Age (EBA I) occupied much of the 4th millennium cal BC (3800/3700 to 3100/3000 cal BC). As this EB I period in the Jordan Valley is generally viewed as the key precursor phase in the development of urbanism (Joffe 1993), this revisionist chronology has potentially radical significance for understanding both the nature and speed of the move from village settlement towards a complex urban lifeway.
This article reports on 12 new accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dates from the latest phases of the Chalcolithic period occupation (late 5th millennium cal BC) at Teleilat Ghassul, type site for the south Levantine Ghassulian Chalcolithic culture. The new AMS dates from Teleilat Ghassul favor an amendment to a previous suggestion (Bourke et al. 2001), that all significant occupation at the site had ceased by 4000/3900 cal BC. This end-date should now be amended to 3900/3800 cal BC. Follow-up statistical modelling sourced to published 14C data drawn from a wide selection of south Levantine Chalcolithic period sites (Bourke 2001; Burton and Levy 2001) raises the possibility that Chalcolithic period occupation had ceased at virtually all major centers by 3800/3700 cal BC. This, in turn, suggests that the new data bearing on the end-date for occupation at Teleilat Ghassul may reflect a more widespread horizon of abandonment in the southern Levant.
Persecutory delusions may be unfounded threat beliefs maintained by
safety-seeking behaviours that prevent disconfirmatory evidence being
successfully processed. Use of virtual reality could facilitate new
To test the hypothesis that enabling patients to test the threat
predictions of persecutory delusions in virtual reality social
environments with the dropping of safety-seeking behaviours (virtual
reality cognitive therapy) would lead to greater delusion reduction than
exposure alone (virtual reality exposure).
Conviction in delusions and distress in a real-world situation were
assessed in 30 patients with persecutory delusions. Patients were then
randomised to virtual reality cognitive therapy or virtual reality
exposure, both with 30 min in graded virtual reality social environments.
Delusion conviction and real-world distress were then reassessed.
In comparison with exposure, virtual reality cognitive therapy led to
large reductions in delusional conviction (reduction 22.0%,
P = 0.024, Cohen's d = 1.3) and
real-world distress (reduction 19.6%, P = 0.020, Cohen's
d = 0.8).
Cognitive therapy using virtual reality could prove highly effective in
Ultracompact H II regions are small, dense regions of ionised gas surrounding high-mass stars which are still embedded in their natal molecular clouds. A survey of such regions has been commenced in an attempt to improve our understanding of the processes of high-mass star formation. The initial stages of the survey have involved selection of likely candidates from the IRAS Point Source Catalogue, correlation with radio continuum emission at 4·85 GHz and subsequent observations of methanol maser emission at 6·668 GHz. Preliminary results of the methanol maser survey are given.