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Germplasm lines with resistance to the sugarbeet root maggot (SBRM) have been developed and released to the public, providing a means to generate hybrids with resistance against the most devastating insect pest of sugarbeet in North America. Effective use of this germplasm, however, requires knowledge of relative strengths of SBRM resistance between lines and knowledge of the diversity and genetic relationships between germplasm. Therefore, field studies comparing SBRM resistance of four released SBRM-resistant germplasm lines (F1015, F1016, F1024 and F1043), a SBRM-resistant parent (PI 179180) and an unreleased SBRM-resistant population (F1055) were performed, and genetic analysis of the diversity and relationships between SBRM-resistant germplasm and their available parents was conducted using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Under natural SBRM infestations, resistant germplasm exhibited significantly less SBRM damage than a susceptible control, with similar, high levels of resistance in F1016, F1024, F1043, F1055 and PI 179180 and lower resistance in F1015. SSR analysis revealed genetic similarities between F1016, F1024 and F1055, while F1015 and F1043 were genetically distinct from these lines. Among resistant genotypes, F1015 and F1043 exhibited greatest and least within-line genetic diversity, indicating greater and lesser inbreeding for F1043 and F1015, respectively. Similarities in damage ratings and genetics for F1016, F1024 and F1055 indicate that these lines are likely to be equally effective at introducing SBRM resistance into elite populations and in combining ability. In contrast, F1043, with its unique parentage and genetic dissimilarity from other resistant lines, provides a genetically distinct, but similarly effective, source of SBRM resistance.
The disease caused by the influenza virus is a global public health problem due to its high rates of morbidity and mortality. Thus, analysis of the information generated by epidemiological surveillance systems has vital importance for health decision making. A retrospective analysis was performed using data generated by the four molecular diagnostic laboratories of the Mexican Social Security Institute between 2010 and 2016. Demographics, influenza positivity, seasonality, treatment choices and vaccination status analyses were performed for the vaccine according to its composition for each season. In all cases, both the different influenza subtypes and different age groups were considered separately. The circulation of A/H1N1pdm09 (48.7%), influenza A/H3N2 (21.1%), influenza B (12.6%), influenza A not subtyped (11%) and influenza A/H1N1 (6.6%) exhibited well-defined annual seasonality between November and March, and there were significant increases in the number of cases every 2 years. An inadequate use of oseltamivir was determined in 38% of cases, and the vaccination status in general varied between 12.1 and 18.5% depending on the season. Our results provide current information about influenza in Mexico and demonstrate the need to update both operational case definitions and medical practice guidelines to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics and antivirals.
Introduction: Electronic health record (EHR) implementation can be associated with a slowdown in performance and delayed return to pre go-live productivity. The objective of this study is to describe the impact of a go-live strategy including diversion, public advertising of the go-live, and extra physician staffing to mitigate productivity loss. Methods: Lions Gate Hospital (LGH), an urban community hospital and rural referral centre with 250 beds and 65,000 annual ED visits went live with Cerner HER (Cerner Corporation, Kansas, MO) on April 28, 2018. The implementation included complete electronic ordering and electronic physician documentation. We compared patients seen per hour, time to physician (TTMD), ED length of stay (EDLOS), patients per hour left without being seen (LWBS), and admission rate (AR) for the 6 weeks prior to implementation (Pre), 2 weeks during (Imp), and 6 weeks after (Post) for LGH and a control hospital (Richmond Hospital – comparable in size/acuity) for the same periods. Medians were compared using the Mann-Whitney test for patients/hour, EDLOS and TTMD, and chi-square for AR and LWBS. Results: Patients/hour seen went from 2.1/hour in the pre phase, but dropped to 1.7/hr in the 2 week period following implementation (P < 0.05). During weeks 2-8 post implementation, 2,3 patients per hour were seen (P = 0.38 compared to Pre phase). At the control hospital, patients per hour were comparable across all time periods (Ps > 0.3). Median time to physician was 54, 56, and 54 minutes at LGH for the Pre, Imp, and Post time periods (Ps > 0.3). Median EDLOS was 184, 196, and 184 minutes in the pre, Imp, and post phases (P Imp versus pre = 0.11; Pre versus post = 0.54). LWBS rate was 1.3%, 2.9, and 2.4% (Ps for Imp and Post versus pre <0.05) at LGH, but the pattern was similar for the control hospital (2.9%, 4.1% and 4.0%’ Ps <0.05). There was no significant change in ambulance arrivals or admission rate at either hospital (Ps > 0.2). Conclusion: A deliberate implementation strategy that focuses on ED physician upstaffing and visit diversion can smooth the impact of the implementation of an EHR so that patient care is not impacted significantly. Return to normal productivity occurred by 8 weeks post go-live. We demonstrate a strategy that may support easier implementation at other sites.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: In an effort to elucidate the role of potentially cancer chemopreventive drugs, we leveraged the Mayo Clinic-Karolinska Institute collaboration to create a multidisciplinary team that included an epidemiologist, statisticians, and physicians. We performed a population-based cohort study to examine the association between low dose aspirin, non-aspirin NSAIDs, statins, metformin, other risk factors and the risk of biliary tract cancer (BTC), while assessing confounding by sex. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We conducted a nationwide Swedish population-based cohort study using the Swedish Prescribed Drug Registry, which virtually completely enumerates use of prescribed medications nationwide since 2005. BTC diagnosis (intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma [iCCA], extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma [eCCA] or gallbladder cancer [GBC]) was ascertained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Age-scaled Cox models, with exposure as time-varying covariates, were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs), separately for men and women. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In the 5.7 million person cohort, the risk of iCCA was significantly lower in men using statins (HR 0.62,95%CI 0.39-1.00, p = 0.05), with a non-significant reduction in women. Statin use was associated with a significantly decreased risk of eCCA in both women (HR 0.60,0.38-0.94, p = 0.03) and men (HR 0.47,0.28-0.80, p = 0.01). Low dose aspirin (HR 0.76,0.60-0.97, p = 0.03) was associated with a lower risk of GBC only in women, while statins (HR 0.72,0.55-0.93, p = 0.01) showed a significantly decreased risk of GBC in women and a non-significant reduction in men. For all BTC subtypes, combined use of low dose aspirin and statins did not confer additional risk reductions beyond those achieved by statins alone. Male and female users of non-aspirin NSAIDs appeared to be at increased risk of BTC and its subtypes. Metformin did not significantly affect risk of BTC. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our collaborative efforts allowed us to develop the largest population-based cohort evaluating risk and protective factors for BTC. Our results provide strong evidence in favor of the chemopreventive roles of low dose aspirin and statins in a subtype- and sex-specific manner. Individual risk factors contribute to development of BTC subtypes in different magnitudes. The next steps to translate these findings into clinical practice require randomized clinical trials that validate our results and provide a more complete picture of the risk-benefit ratio.
Settlements incorporating large-scale human aggregations are a well-documented but poorly understood phenomenon across late prehistoric Europe. The authors’ research examines the origins and trajectory of such aggregations through isotope analysis of human skeletal remains from the mega-site of Marroquíes in Jaén, Spain. The results indicate that eight per cent of 115 sampled individuals are of non-local origin. These individuals received mortuary treatments indistinguishable from those of locals, suggesting their incorporation into pre-existing social networks in both life and death. This research contributes to our understanding of the extent and patterning of human mobility, which underlies the emergence of late prehistoric mega-sites in Europe.
Plant–animal mutualistic interactions through ecological network systems and the environmental conditions in which they occur, allow us to understand patterns of species composition and the structure and dynamics of communities. We evaluated whether flower morphologies with different pollination syndromes (ornithophilous and non-ornithophilous) are used by hummingbirds and whether these characteristics affect the structure (core-peripheral species) of hummingbird networks. Observations were made in flowering patches, where plant–hummingbird interactions were recorded at three altitudes (300–2500 m) during three seasons (dry, rainy and post-rainy) from 2015 to 2016 at El Triunfo Biosphere Reserve, Chiapas, Mexico. We recorded 15 hummingbird species interacting with 58 plant species, and the greatest number of interacting hummingbird species (11; 14) and plant species (28; 40) were found at middle altitudes and during the dry season, respectively. In all study sites, most of the plant species visited by hummingbirds had an ornithophilous syndrome (67%) at high altitudes (22 plant species) and during the dry season (26 plant species), but more individual hummingbirds visited non-ornithophilous plant species. The hummingbird species at high altitudes exhibited the greatest level of specialization towards plants (H2′ = 0.74), but the networks of plant-hummingbird interactions were generalist (H2′ = 0.25); i.e. visiting plants with both syndromes, at low altitudes. The core generalist hummingbird species remained constant with altitude and season, but the core generalist plant species varied between different altitudes and seasons according to the phenology of the species.
For more than 60 years, Colombia experienced an armed conflict involving government forces, guerrillas, and other illegal armed groups. Violence, including torture and massacres, has caused displacement of entire rural communities to urban areas. Lack of information on the problems displaced communities face and on their perceptions on potential solutions to these problems may prevent programs from delivering appropriate services to these communities. This study explores the problems of Afro-Colombian survivors from two major cities in Colombia; the activities they do to take care of themselves, their families, and their community; and possible solutions to these problems.
This was a qualitative, interview-based study conducted in Quibdó and Buenaventura (Colombia). Free-list interviews and focus groups explored the problems of survivors and the activities they do to take care of themselves, their families, and their community. Key-informant interviews explored details of the identified mental health problems and possible solutions.
In Buenaventura, 24 free-list interviews, one focus group, and 17 key-informant interviews were completed. In Quibdó, 29 free-list interviews, one focus group, and 15 key-informant interviews were completed. Mental health problems identified included: (1) problems related to exposure to torture/violent events; (2) problems with adaptation to the new social context; and (3) problems related to current poverty, lack of employment, and ongoing violence. These problems were similar to trauma symptoms and features of depression and anxiety, as described in other populations. Solutions included psychological help, talking to friends/family, relying on God’s help, and getting trained in different task or jobs.
Afro-Colombian survivors of torture and violence described mental health problems similar to those of other trauma-affected populations. These results suggest that existing interventions that address trauma-related symptoms and current ongoing stressors may be appropriate for improving the mental health of survivors in this population.
Santaella-TenorioJ, Bonilla-EscobarFJ, Nieto-GilL, Fandiño-LosadaA, Gutiérrez-MartínezMI, BassJ, BoltonP. Mental Health and Psychosocial Problems and Needs of Violence Survivors in the Colombian Pacific Coast: A Qualitative Study in Buenaventura and Quibdó. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(6):567–574.
To date, while there is a rich literature describing the determinants of anti-immigrant sentiment, researchers have not identified a mechanism to reduce antipathy toward immigrants. In fact, extant research has shown that efforts to induce positive attitudes toward immigrants often backfire. What if a bridging frame strategy were employed? Can a bipartisan issue area in which there is general support act as a bridging frame to elicit more positive sentiment toward immigration among those who oppose more open immigration policies? We explore this question by conducting two survey experiments in which we manipulate whether immigration is linked with the bipartisan issue area of human trafficking. We find that in forcing individuals to reconcile the fact that a widely accepted issue position of combating trafficking also requires a reassessment of immigration policies, we can positively shift attitudes on immigration.
Despite a near unanimous agreement that human trafficking is a morally reprehensible practice, there is confusion around what qualifies as human trafficking in the United States. Adopting a mixed-method strategy, we examine how human trafficking is defined by the public; how contemporary (mis)understanding of human trafficking developed; and the public opinion consequence of this (mis)understanding. The definition of human trafficking has evolved over time to become nearly synonymous with slavery; however, we demonstrate that media and anti-trafficking organisations have been focussing their attention on the sexual exploitation of foreign women. We show that general public opinion reflects this skewed attention; the average citizen equates human trafficking with the smuggling of women for sexual slavery. Using a survey experiment, we find that shining light on other facets of human trafficking – the fact that human trafficking is a security problem and a domestic issue – can increase public response to the issue.
An excavation carried out at the megalithic necropolis of Panoria in 2015 offered an excellent opportunity for dating a widespread variety of polygonal, rectangular, and trapezoidal-shaped tombs with short passages for which, surprisingly, there were previously no known radiocarbon (14C) measurements available. Based on the anthropological remains, a series of 19 14C dates was obtained and modeled in a Bayesian statistical framework. The results stress a long period of use that began in the Late Neolithic (3525–3195 cal BC), reaching the most intensive ritual activity during the Copper Age and ending in the Early Bronze Age (2125–1980 cal BC). Throughout this period, tombs were built at different times and used at different temporal scales and intensities, ranging from a few decades to centuries.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer typically have poor outcomes, with a median survival of ~16 months. Novel methods to improve local control are needed. Nab-paclitaxel (abraxane) has shown efficacy in pancreatic cancer and is FDA approved for metastatic disease in combination with gemcitabine. Nab-paclitaxel is also a promising radiosensitizer based on laboratory studies, but it has never been clinically tested with definitive radiotherapy for locally advanced disease. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We performed a phase 1 study using a 3+3 dose-escalation strategy to determine the safety and tolerability of dose escalated nab-paclitaxel with fractionated radiotherapy for patients with unresectable or borderline resectable pancreatic cancer. Following induction chemotherapy with 2 cycles of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine, patients were treated with weekly nab-paclitaxel and daily radiotherapy to a dose of 52.5 Gy in 25 fractions. Final dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) determination was performed at day 65 after the start of radiotherapy. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Nine patients received nab-paclitaxel at a dose level of either 100 mg/m2 (n=3) or 125 mg/m2 (n=6). One DLT (grade 3 neuropathy) was observed in a patient who received 125 mg/m2 of nab-paclitaxel. Other grade 3 toxicities included fatigue (11%), anemia (11%), and neutropenia (11%). No grade 4 toxicities were observed. With a median follow-up of 8 months (range 5–28 months), median survival was 19 months and median progression-free survival was 10 months. Following chemoradiation, 3 patients underwent surgical resection, all with negative margins and limited tumor viability. Of the 3 patients, 2 initially had borderline resectable tumors and 1 had an unresectable tumor. Tumor (SMAD-4, Caveolin-1) and peripheral (circulating tumor cells and microvesicles) biomarkers were collected and are being analyzed. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The combination of fractionated radiation and weekly nab-paclitaxel was safe and well tolerated. This regimen represents a potentially promising therapy for patients with unresectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer and warrants further investigation.
Inspired by the biographical approach to the study of material culture, a radiocarbon dating programme was undertaken to explore the chronology and temporality of the megalithic monuments in south-eastern Iberia. Instead of one or two dates per tomb, the normal way of approaching this complex issue, we carried out a complete radiocarbon dating series of single tombs based on human remains. We focused our attention on four tholos-type tombs in the cemetery of El Barranquete (Almería, Spain). According to the new radiocarbon series modelled in a Bayesian framework, four main conclusions can be drawn: that the cemetery shows a very long period of funerary activity, which began in the late fourth millennium and ended in the last centuries of the second millennium cal bc; that continuity of ritual practices attained an unexpected importance during the Bronze Age; that interments, which fall into cultural periods that would be unthinkable if only the typological properties of the grave goods were considered, occurred; and that each tomb had a complex and very different biography.
Observational studies report associations between early menarche and higher levels of depressive symptoms and depression. However, no studies have investigated whether this association is causal.
To determine whether earlier menarche is a causal risk factor for depressive symptoms and depression in adolescence.
The associations between a genetic score for age at menarche and depressive symptoms at 14, 17 and 19 years, and depression at 18 years, were examined using Mendelian randomisation analysis techniques.
Using a genetic risk score to indicate earlier timing of menarche, we found that early menarche is associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms at 14 years (odds ratio per risk allele 1.02, 95% CI 1.005–1.04, n=2404). We did not find an association between the early menarche risk score and depressive symptoms or depression after age 14.
Our results provide evidence for a causal effect of age at menarche on depressive symptoms at age 14.
A key result in macroeconomics is the “time inconsistency of short-run optimal plans.” It is argued that inflationary bias results if central bankers do not precommit to a monetary policy rule. The macro literature, however, does not address the way in which board members arrive at the “optimal choice of inflation rate.” That is a matter of a micro subfield called social choice. If we consider that on any board, members have different priors about the states of nature for the economy, but they all receive the same signal before deciding, then they will have different posterior probabilities for the states, even if they have many data, if one state has a low probability of occurring, such as an unlikely catastrophic-risk event. Thus, it is not clear what the optimal plan is. Therefore, discretion rather than rules may be the optimal plan in social choice settings.
Albinism is a hereditary lack of pigmentation caused by deficiencies in enzymes related to the metabolism of melanin. This mutation is present in marine vertebrates and invertebrates, including the Holothuroidea class; nevertheless, information about the occurrence of albinism in these kinds of echinoderms is scarce and refers to species from temperate and cold regions of the ocean. In 2013, we observed two albino individuals of Isostichopus fuscus, one at Loreto (25°45′54″N, 111°14′36″W) and the second one at Los Angeles Bay (29°02′54″N, 113°29′49″W). This is the first documented record of albinism for this species.
An eco-friendly adsorbent was prepared by immobilization of Persimmon Tannin (PT) in cellulose viscopearls to remove caffeine. The immobilization time within a range of 1-42days was performed. Batch adsorption experiments were studied for different Persimmon Tannin on Cellulose Viscopearls (PTIC) gel samples, adsorbent dosage, and initial caffeine concentration. FTIR indicated that PT was successfully immobilized onto viscopearls. SEM images showed differences especially on particle size and shape, between control, day7, and day28 of PTIC gel samples. The adsorption capacity results showed that removal of caffeine as the amount of adsorbed increased, the percentage of caffeine adsorption increased accordingly, but it decreased with the increased in initial caffeine concentration. Results for different PTIC gel samples showed that day 42 PTIC sample exhibits the highest adsorption capacity of caffeine solution of 43.3mg/g. The samples showed water contents in the range of 343-324%.The equilibrium data were analyzed using Freundlich and Langmuir equations. It suggested that viscopearls acted to be a suitable insoluble matrix to immobilized PT, instead of using crosslinkers.