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Relaxor ferroelectrics have drawn attention for possible applications in solid-state cooling and thermal energy harvesting, owing to their electrothermal energy conversion properties. Here, we have synthesized and characterized the structure–property correlations of a new Sn- and Nb-doped (Ba,Ca)TiO3 relaxor ferroelectric with large pyroelectric and electrocaloric effects over a broad temperature range. We observed two peaks for the temperature-dependent pyroelectric coefficient: (i) -(∂P/∂T) ∼ 563 μC/(m2 K) at T∼ 270 K and (ii) -(∂P/∂T) ∼ 1021 μC/(m2 K) at T∼ 320 K. In addition, a broad peak for electrocaloric temperature change is observed near 320 K with a relative cooling power of ∼17 J/kg. These properties could be correlated to structural changes observed using X-ray diffraction at two different temperature ranges in the material. Analysis of high-energy X-ray scattering and specific heat capacity data revealed a transition from the cubic to tetragonal phase near Tm∼ 320 K, whereas an additional increase in the tetragonality (c/a) of the polar phase is observed below Ts∼ 270 K.
To design regulatory policies, agencies depend on information from the industries they are tasked to regulate. Therefore, agencies can organise consultations with the aim of obtaining information from different perspectives. This article focuses on stakeholder diversity in agency public consultations. We ask to what extent is information provided by stakeholders other than the regulated sector, such as other business interests, experts or nonbusiness interests? Stakeholder diversity is relevant as it may prevent agencies to become exposed to one-sided information and capture by specialised interests. Are there consultation design factors that foster consultation diversity? Or, is (a lack of) consultation diversity structurally shaped by the context in which an agency operates? Analysing a wide range of public consultations organised by European Union regulatory agencies indicates that most information agencies receive via consultations comes from regulated interests and that the limited participation of nonregulated interests is highly tenacious.
Here we developed the first set of nuclear microsatellite markers (nSSRs) for Stizophyllum riparium (Bignoniaceae), a widespread species of Neotropical liana. Thirty-two sets of primers were isolated from a genomic dataset obtained with an Illumina HiSeq Platform, and characterized for 57 individuals of S. riparium from three populations. Nine nSSRs were polymorphic and the number of alleles ranged from eight to 29. The unbiased expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.724 to 0.952 and the polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.717 to 0.944. All nine primer pairs also amplified for two closely related species (S. inaequilaterum and S. perforatum). The new set of nuclear markers will be useful for population genetics studies of Stizophyllum as a whole.
With the advent of high power lasers, new opportunities have opened up for simulating astrophysical processes in the laboratory. We show that second-order Fermi acceleration can be directly investigated at the National Ignition Facility, Livermore. This requires measuring the momentum-space diffusion of 3 MeV protons produced within a turbulent plasma generated by a laser. Treating Fermi acceleration as a biased diffusion process, we show analytically that a measurable broadening of the initial proton distribution is then expected for particles exiting the plasma.
In their pursuit of political influence, interest groups face the choice to contact policy elites directly or to generate pressure indirectly by appealing to the public at large. This article examines whether interest groups should prioritize inside or outside lobbying tactics in order to materialize their policy objectives, with a specific focus on European Union legislative policymaking. This article demonstrates that outside lobbying is not inherently more or less successful than inside lobbying; rather, the effect of inside or outside lobbying is conditional on the extent to which additional lobbying tactics are adopted and on the type of policy issues a lobbyist seeks to influence. The empirical approach of this article consists of an extensive media analysis and over 200 interviews with policy practitioners active on 78 policy proposals. The results indicate that outside lobbying leads to policy success when the lobbyist’s policy position enjoys popular endorsement within media debates and when the lobbyist engages in a coalition with other organized interests.
Subglacial hydrology plays a key role in many glaciological processes, including ice dynamics via the modulation of basal sliding. Owing to the lack of an overarching theory, however, a variety of model approximations exist to represent the subglacial drainage system. The Subglacial Hydrology Model Intercomparison Project (SHMIP) provides a set of synthetic experiments to compare existing and future models. We present the results from 13 participating models with a focus on effective pressure and discharge. For many applications (e.g. steady states and annual variations, low input scenarios) a simple model, such as an inefficient-system-only model, a flowline or lumped model, or a porous-layer model provides results comparable to those of more complex models. However, when studying short term (e.g. diurnal) variations of the water pressure, the use of a two-dimensional model incorporating physical representations of both efficient and inefficient drainage systems yields results that are significantly different from those of simpler models and should be preferentially applied. The results also emphasise the role of water storage in the response of water pressure to transient recharge. Finally, we find that the localisation of moulins has a limited impact except in regions of sparse moulin density.
Patients with psychiatric conditions are often referred for a brain scan during the course of their diagnostic workup.
The aim of our study is to determine frequency and type of organic brain pathology, the relationship to age, gender and psychiatric diagnosis.
We investigated magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography brain scans from consecutively referred patients over a 10-year period (January 2002-December 2011). The reasons for referral, estimated psychiatric diagnosis, and the pathology discovered for each patient were registered.
A total of 34% of patients demonstrated organic brain pathology, of which 32.8% were considered clinically relevant. This represents a higher frequency of relevant pathology than reported in healthy subjects. Age (P < 0.001) and diagnosis (P = 0.016) were the most important determinants for frequency of pathological findings.
Brain imaging in clinical psychiatry resulted in approximately 30% positive findings mainly associated with increasing pathologies with age, but also with diagnosis.
Declaration of interest
Both T.O.D. and M.K.B. have received honorary from Novartis for scientific lectures about multiple sclerosis. M.K.B. also received honoraria from Biogen for scientific lectures. The other authors have no conflicts of interest.
Several methods have been developed to evaluate activities of daily living (ADLs) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia. This study evaluated the convergent and concurrent validity between (1) two report-based methods (the advanced (a)- and instrumental (i)-ADL tools) and (2) a performance-based method (the Naturalistic Action Test (NAT)) to check if their ability to differentiate between cognitively healthy comparisons (HCs), persons with MCI, and persons with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) are comparable to each other.
This was a cross-sectional study, undertaken in a geriatric day hospital. The participants comprised community-dwelling HCs (n = 21, median age 78.0 years, 61.9% female), MCI (n = 20, median age 79.5 years, 55.0% female), and AD (n = 20, median age 80.0 years, 85.0% female) adults. A diagnostic procedure for neurocognitive disorders was employed. In addition, the a- and i-ADL tools and the NAT were administered separately by blinded raters.
The NAT and both the a- and i-ADL tools showed significant differences between HCs, MCI, and AD participants. Convergent validity showed moderate to strong significant correlations between the NAT, and a- and i-ADL tools (range −0.583 to −0.663; p < 0.01). Concurrent validity showed that the NAT (AUC 0.809–1.000) and the a- and i-ADL tools (AUC 0.739–0.964) presented comparable discriminatory accuracy (p = 0.0588).
In contrast to prior studies comparing report-based and performance-based methods of assessing ADL, this study indicates that the NAT and the a- and i-ADL tools have strong convergent and concurrent validity, and appear to have similar discriminatory power in differentiating between HCs, MCI, and AD.
Using kerf-free wafering technologies material losses in semiconductor manufacturing processes can be reduced drastically. By the use of externally applied stress, crystalline materials can be separated along crystal planes with clearly defined thickness. Nevertheless, during this process striations caused by the crack propagation occur. These crack growth features are river and Wallner lines. In this work, we demonstrate a process for spalling that scales favorably for large-area semiconductor substrates with a diameter up to 300 mm. To get rid of the crack growth features, a laser-conditioning process with a high numerical aperture at photon energies below the material bandgap energy, using multi-photon effects is utilized. The process affords a surface roughness Ra after spalling of <1 µm.
In this study we compare two thermal annealing series of III/V semiconductor heterostructures on Si, where during the first series nitrogen is present in the in situ holder. The second, comparative, measurement is done in a tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP) environment. The sample annealed in a TBP environment shows favorable thermal stability up to 500°C compared to the unstabilized sample, which begins to degrade at less than 300°C. Evaporation of P from the material is tracked qualitatively by measuring the thickness of the sample during thermal annealing with and without stabilization. Finally, we investigate the in situ thermal annealing processes at atomic resolution. Here it is possible to study phase separation as well as the diffusion of As from a Ga(NAsP) quantum well in the surrounding GaP material during thermal annealing. To make these investigations possible we developed an extension for our in situ transmission electron microscopy setup for the safe usage of toxic and pyrophoric III/V semiconductor precursors. A commercially available gas cell and gas supply system were expanded with a gas mixing system, an appropriate toxic gas monitoring system and a gas scrubbing system. These components allow in situ studies of semiconductor growth and annealing under the purity conditions required for these materials.
This chapter examines May Sinclair's representations of mother figures and maternity in her 1922 novel Life and Death of Harriett Frean. My discussion focuses specifically on Sinclair's critique of idealised Victorian motherhood in the novel, and on its portrayals of mothering practices, femininity and class. I explore Sinclair's novel as a modernist work of historical fiction, analysing its use of modernist thematic and textual strategies in reassessing Victorian values and representations. Such themes reflect a more general preoccupation in modernist women's writing with motherhood, agency and sexuality. This concern can be seen in Virginia Woolf's novels To the Lighthouse(1927) and Mrs Dalloway(1925), and Katherine Mansfield's short story ‘Bliss’ (1918), where mother-figures struggle against invisibility and idealised maternity in a patriarchal society which frequently diminishes them, and yearn to express their creativity and sexuality. In her discussion of Coventry Patmore's poem ‘The Angel in the House’ in relation to Victorian constructions of femininity, Annie Cossins concludes that Patmore ‘lauded the selfless devotion and submissiveness of the Victorian feminine ideal woman and modelled the angel on his wife, Emily, the “perfect” woman’ (Cossins 2015: 63). Patmore's poem was highly influential and continued to resonate into the twentieth century (Cossins 2015: 64). My chapter examines Sinclair's critique of the continued influence and impact of these pervasive Victorian ideals and values into the modernist period. Like Virginia Woolf, who struggled with the emotionally and creatively limiting legacies of the Angel in the House, Sinclair also battled Victorian ideals, both in her writing and her personal life. For both authors, these questions were centred on motherhood. My analysis focuses on two contrasting yet interconnected dimensions of Sinclair's portrayal of the maternal in Harriett Frean: namely the Victorian idealisation of motherhood, and Sinclair's depiction of baby farming, the dark repressed side of Victorian maternity.
Harriett Frean portrays the life of Harriett, a middle-class woman growing up during the latter half of the nineteenth century. Harriett is brought up in adherence to the traditional Victorian values of ‘beautiful behaviour’ (Sinclair 1922: 23) for women, and looks up to her parents as ideals. She foregoes marriage and motherhood, and never moves out of her parents’ house; yet memories and images from her childhood continue to return to haunt her throughout her life, demonstrating Sinclair's interest in the psychological dimensions of existence.
Ice-stream dynamics are strongly controlled by processes taking place at the ice/bed interface where subglacial water both lubricates the base and saturates any existing, underlying sediment. Large parts of the former Eurasian ice sheet were underlain by thick sequences of soft, marine sediments and many areas are imprinted with geomorphological features indicative of fast flow and wet basal conditions. Here, we study the effect of subglacial water on past Eurasian ice-sheet dynamics by incorporating a thin-film model of basal water flow into the ice-sheet model SICOPOLIS and use it to better represent flow in temperate areas. The adjunction of subglacial hydrology results in a smaller ice-sheet building up over time and generally faster ice velocities, which consequently reduces the total area fraction of temperate basal ice and ice streaming areas. Minima in the hydraulic pressure potential, governing water flow, are used as indicators for potential locations of past subglacial lakes and a probability distribution of lake existence is presented based on estimated lake depth and longevity.
There is significant evidence that HIV is brain degenerative and long-term infection can impair cognitive functioning. In South Africa, alcohol remains the dominant substance of abuse and lifetime alcohol dependence has been found to impair memory, executive function and visuospatial capabilities. The individual liability of alcohol and HIV on neurocognitive function have been well demonstrated, however there is relatively little evidence of the potentially aggravating effects of this dual burden on neurocognitive outcomes.
The present study is ongoing and sought to identify the effects of hazardous alcohol use on neurocognitive functioning in the context of HIV infection.
To describe the association between HIV and harmful alcohol use on neuropsychological test performance in a cohort of adults in the Western Cape of South africa.
participants (n = 50) were tested using a battery of neuropsychological tests sensitive to the effects of HIV on the brain. Self-reported alcohol use was recorded using the alcohol use identification test (AUDIT). Results The sample consisted of 47 females and 3 males. All participants were HIV-positive and on antiretroviral therapy. A total of 23 (46%) participants reported no alcohol use and 27 (54%) reported drinking alcohol on the AUDIT.
revealed a significant difference between groups on the Stroop colour word test, with poorer performance evident among the alcohol users (P = 0.008).
Alcohol use in the context of HIV infection contributes to poorer executive function. These preliminary data provide evidence for a synergistic relationship between HIV infection and alcohol use.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Longitudinal bidirectional effects between parents and children are usually studied in samples of typically developing children, but remain understudied in families with a child with autism spectrum disorder. This three-wave longitudinal study examined how parents and children with autism spectrum disorder influence one another, relying on parent reports of parenting behaviors and children's problem behaviors across 9 years, in a sample of 139 youngsters (M age Time 1 = 10.2 years, 83% boys). Cross-lagged analyses indicated that children's externalizing problems at Time 1 predicted negative controlling parenting 6 years later (Time 2) that in turn predicted externalizing problems 3 years later (Time 3). Negative parental control at Time 1 also increased the risk for internalizing problems at Time 2. It was surprising that externalizing problems at Time 2 also predicted positive parental involvement at Time 3. Thus, although results indicate that externalizing problems generally elicit maladaptive reactions in parents, this study also suggests that parents adjust their way of reacting to externalizing child problems as their child reaches adolescence/emerging adulthood. Implications for future research on parenting dynamics in families with a child with autism spectrum disorder are discussed.
Although prescription rates of antidepressants for children and adolescents have increased, concerns have been raised regarding effects on neurodevelopment and long-term outcome. Using a genetic animal model of depression, this study investigated the long-term effects of pre-pubertal administration of fluoxetine (FLX) on depressive-like behaviour in early adulthood, as well as on central monoaminergic response to an acute stressor. We postulated that pre-pubertal FLX will have lasting effects on animal behaviour and monoaminergic stress responses in early adulthood.
Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rats received 10 mg/kg/day FLX subcutaneously from postnatal day 21 (PnD21) to PnD34 (pre-pubertal). Thereafter, following normal housing, rats were either subjected to locomotor testing and the forced swim test (FST) on PnD60 (early adulthood), or underwent surgery for microdialysis, followed on PnD60 by exposure to acute swim stress and measurement of stressor-induced changes in plasma corticosterone and pre-frontal cortical monoamine concentrations.
Pre-pubertal FLX did not induce a late emergent effect on immobility in FSL rats on PnD60, whereas locomotor activity was significantly decreased. Acute swim stress on PnD60 significantly increased plasma corticosterone levels, and increased pre-frontal cortical norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) concentrations. Pre-pubertal FLX significantly blunted the pre-frontal cortical NE and 5-HIAA response following swim stress on PnD60. Baseline dopamine levels were significantly enhanced by pre-pubertal FLX, but no further changes were induced by swim stress.
Pre-pubertal FLX did not have lasting antidepressant-like behavioural effects in genetically susceptible, stress-sensitive FSL rats. However, such treatment reduced locomotor activity, abrogated noradrenergic and serotonergic stressor responses and elevated dopaminergic baseline levels in adulthood.