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A collision-radiation model of the solid sample cesium sputter ion source led to the rediscovery of anion production by ion-pair production. The model revealed physical processes that may produce high current outputs from such sources and suggested new ways of obtaining high outputs at lower heat and conductive stress to the source. Primary among these solutions is the electron excitation of primary Cs0 recycled from the sample to provide states that efficiently create chosen anions. Here we look at how the processes might apply to gas-fed ion sources.
Increasing demands for small-scale radiocarbon (14C) analyses required the installation of a “SO-110 B” type ion source (HVE Europa B.V.) at our 6 MV Tandetron AMS (HVE) dedicated for the direct injection of CO2 using either the gas injection system (GIS) from Ionplus AG or a EuroVector EA 3000 elemental analyzer (EA). We tested both systems with multiple series of 14C-free and modern standards (2.5–50 µg C) combusted in quartz ampoules or EA containers and were able to quantify exogenous C introduced. In EA-GIS-AMS analysis exogenous C is mainly derived from the EA sample containers. Blank values for 50 µg C combusted in solvent-cleaned tin (Sn) vessels were 0.0127 ± 0.0012 F14C (boats) and 0.0090 ± 0.0010 F14C (capsules), while they were much higher for thermally cleaned silver (Ag) capsules. The processing of gas samples for GIS-AMS yields similar blank values corresponding to 0.30 ± 0.08 µg exogenous C with 0.93 ± 0.23 F14C consisting of 0.28 µg C modern and 0.02 µg C fossil C. The combustion of larger amounts of blank material (1 mg C) in a single quartz tube split into aliquots gives lower blanks (0.0064 ± 0.0008 F14C; 50 µg C). Thus, 14C analysis of small, gaseous samples is now possible at CologneAMS.
Establishment of churches is a central feature of the church-state regime in most European countries, and understanding the nature of such privileges is of key importance for both theoretical and political reasons. Yet, there is little empirical research on how establishment influences the organizational behavior of congregations. This article looks at this question by focusing on one relationship in one geographical context: we investigate whether establishment suppresses the political activities of congregations in Switzerland or not. We identify mechanisms that might lead establishment to suppress the political activities of congregations, and other mechanisms that might enhance such activities. We use representative National Congregation Study Data from Switzerland. Our results are unequivocal: establishment does not suppress the political activities of congregations. The level of establishment of the canton has no significant impact either on established congregations or on the religious field as a whole. Rather than establishment, important determinants of the political activities of congregations are religious tradition and income.
This work summarizes the methodical capabilities, improvements, and new developments in the radiocarbon laboratory of the accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) facility at the University of Cologne, Germany, which was established in 2010. During the past years, the laboratory has specialized in the analysis of small and gaseous samples. We thus, recently installed a second ion source dedicated for radiocarbon (14C) analysis of CO2 samples at our 6 MV Tandetron AMS from High Voltage Engineering Europe B.V. that is coupled with the gas injection system from Ionplus and an EuroVector EA 3000 elemental analyzer. This work summarizes all pretreatment methods and analytical facilities established in our laboratory during the last years including 14C analysis of individual organic compounds and of CO2 trapped on molecular sieves. We also report different blank values including our long-term blank since 2011, which is for normal-sized, solid samples (650–1000 µg C) 0.0012 ± 0.0004 F14C (54,305 ± 2581 yr BP, n = 484). The precision obtained for modern samples measured as graphite is 0.5% and for gaseous samples injected with the GIS ≤2%.
Demonstrated economic benefits of conversion to organic agriculture, combined with solutions to technical and production-related problems, suggest that farmers in Switzerland should have converted in large numbers to organic production. However, the number of organic farms in Switzerland has remained virtually constant in the last 10 yr, so it appears there are other factors that influence the decision of whether or not to convert. Several studies have sought to identify the factors that influence the decisions by farmers whether or not to convert to organic, but have found a range of factors that appear to be context dependent, while others can be seen as context transcendent, which makes it difficult to draw generalizable conclusions. The aim of this study was to identify how Swiss farmers’ decisions reflect the interaction of perceptions, relationships, policies and economic factors, which either enable or provide barriers to conversion. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2015 with 39 farmers of mixed and arable farms in the German- (n = 24) and French-speaking (n = 15) parts of Switzerland. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to their content. The results show that the decision of whether or not to convert relies on belief that technical problems have been sufficiently solved, as well as a range of social factors. Farmers perceive social pressure for them to be productive, but non-organic farmers often incorrectly perceive organic farming as not being oriented toward production. Furthermore, ‘official’ advice, which could correct this misperception, is sought about how, rather than whether, to convert and typically comes after farmers have made their decision. Major barriers in an area with a low density of organic farms are the lack of supply and delivery points within an acceptable travel distance, and lack of peer networks to provide informal support. On the basis of these findings, we propose that strategies to encourage conversion should be based around two main pillars: investment to create a network of supply and delivery points in areas with low density of organic farms; and actions, such as information events, to encourage dialogue between conventional and organic farmers to counteract feelings of ‘us vs them’.