To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This important volume provides a clear, concise and comprehensive guide to the history of Sikh nationalism from the late nineteenth century to the present. Drawing on A. D Smith's ethno-symbolic approach, Gurharpal Singh and Giorgio Shani use a new integrated methodology to understanding the historical and sociological development of modern Sikh nationalism. By emphasising the importance of studying Sikh nationalism from the perspective of the nation-building projects of India and Pakistan, the recent literature on religious nationalism and the need to integrate the study of the diaspora with the Sikhs in South Asia, they provide a fresh approach to a complex subject. Singh and Shani evaluate the current condition of Sikh nationalism in a globalised world and consider the lessons the Sikh case offers for the comparative study of ethnicity, nations and nationalism.
Practical Techniques in Molecular Biotechnology intends to familiarise students with the basics of the well-known experiments of molecular biotechnology and related courses like chemical biotechnology and cell biology. The content of the book will be useful in strengthening the basic skills and help students to apply the concepts to real-world problems. This book emphasises important concepts like bioanalytical techniques, biochemical analysis of proteins, recombinant DNA, and protein technology etc. The text will help students to understand the theoretical aspects of the techniques and provide experience with hands-on techniques to demonstrate practical troubleshooting and data analysis. The text is supported with diagrams, data, summaries for the quick recap and appendices with useful protocols and calculation methods.
Recently, infection transmission risk associated with contaminated, patient-ready flexible endoscopes has attracted attention. Outbreaks of multidrug-resistant organisms resulting in infection and/or colonization have been particularly concerning. Recent CDC and FDA recommendations focus on reducing “exogenous” infection transmission and specifically recommend that endoscopy sites have quality systems in place for endoscope reprocessing. Another key recommendation is the culture of patient-ready endoscopes to detect contamination with organisms of concern. Remaining gaps in the guidelines include ensuring that optimal endoscope-channel sample methods are used and ensuring effective root-cause analysis and remediation when contamination is detected. In this review, we summarize the critical aspects of endoscope sample collection and present a practical approach to root-cause analysis and remedial action plans.
This study presents an innovative approach towards the generation and decay of turbulence in the Taylor–Couette system. The outer cylinder was brought to an abrupt stoppage that generated turbulence in the system, which was initially in the laminar flow regime. Two complementary experimental approaches, namely visualizations and stereo-particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements, were used to better understand the presented phenomenon for only external cylinder rotation. A moving time average technique was developed due to the continuous change in the length scales throughout the generation and decay process. The different stages of the generation and decay of turbulence were described and characterized through dynamic quantities such as the kinetic energy. This new approach towards the generation and decay of turbulence in the Taylor–Couette flow should help significantly in future endeavours.
It has been demonstrated that salivary gland duct cells have similar receptors as ACE2-positive cells/keratin epithelial cells of the lung which have high potential to be infected by SARS-CoV 2 virus. The aerosols carrying virus have penetration into the healthy human body and lungs via inhalation through nose or mouth.
A circularly polarized stub-matched inverted L-shaped antenna for C-band applications is presented in this communication. Antenna parameters of inverted L-shape on the radiating patch and slits, notch, square strips and stub on the ground plane and the effect of these are analyzed. The proposed optimized antenna (A5: 0.54λ0 × 0.54λ0 × 0.02λ0 mm3) is selected among antennas (A1 – A5) with 5.1 GHz design frequency after simulation through high-frequency structure simulator (HFSS). Circular polarization is obtained by introducing stub/perturbation on the ground plane. By introducing stub, the highest measured (S11 < − 10 dB) impedance bandwidth of 50.9% (3.48 – 5.86 GHz) is observed amongst the reported and compared bandwidths. Peak gain of 5.32 dBi and 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 16.2% (4.71 – 5.54 GHz) is reported in the present work. An antenna is useful in the entire downlink frequency (3.7 – 4.2 GHz) of the C band.
In this paper, we develop a theory to establish that the thermo-osmotic (TOS) effects, induced by the application of an axial temperature gradient, lead to a massive enhancement in liquid transport in nanochannels grafted with charged polyelectrolyte (PE) brushes. We quantify the TOS transport by quantifying the induced electric field and the induced TOS flow field. The different components of the electric field, namely the ionic component, the thermal component and the osmotic component, as well as the contributions of different ions to these components, are quantified. Furthermore, we express the TOS velocity as a combination of chemiosmotic (COS), thermal and electro-osmotic (EOS) components. The COS and the thermal components augment each other and the overall strength and direction of the TOS flow are dictated by the direction and the relative strength of the EOS component. Most importantly, we compare the cases of brush-grafted nanochannels with those of the brush-free nanochannels of identical surface charge densities: the TOS transport is massively augmented in the brush-grafted nanochannels attributed to the combination of the localization of the electric double layer (EDL) (and hence any body force that depends on the EDL charge density) away from the nanochannel wall (i.e. the location of the maximum drag force) and the presence of a possible molecular slip (experienced by the liquid) along the brush surface.
It is generally believed that the physiological consequences of stress could contribute to poor outcomes for patients being treated for cancer. However, despite preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that stress promotes increased cancer-related mortality, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms involved in mediating these effects does not yet exist. We reviewed 47 clinical studies published between 2007 and 2020 to determine whether psychosocial stress affects clinical outcomes in cancer: 6.4% of studies showed a protective effect; 44.6% showed a harmful effect; 48.9% showed no association. These data suggest that psychosocial stress could affect cancer incidence and/or mortality, but the association is unclear. To shed light on this potentially important relationship, objective biomarkers of stress are needed to more accurately evaluate levels of stress and its downstream effects. As a potential candidate, the neuroendocrine signalling pathways initiated by stress are known to affect anti-tumour immune cells, and here we summarise how this may promote an immunosuppressive, pro-tumour microenvironment. Further research must be done to understand the relationships between stress and immunity to more accurately measure how stress affects cancer progression and outcome.
Improving plant resistance against Fusarium wilt (FW) is key to sustaining chickpea production worldwide. Given this, the current study tested a set of 75 FW-responsive chickpea breeding lines including checks in a wilt-sick plot for two consecutive years (2016 and 2017). Genetic diversity analysis using 75 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) revealed a total of 267 alleles with an average of 3.56 alleles per marker. The entire set was divided into two major classes based on clustering method and factorial analysis. Similarly, STRUCTURE analysis placed the 75 genotypes into three distinct sub-groups (K = 3). Marker-trait association (MTA) analysis using the generalized linear model approach revealed nine and eight significant MTAs for FW resistance in the years 2016 and 2017, respectively. Three significant MTAs were obtained for FW resistance following the mixed linear model approach for both years. The SSR markers CESSR433, NCPGR21 and ICCM0284 could be potentially employed for targeted and accelerated improvement of FW resistance in chickpea. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on association mapping of the genomic loci controlling FW (Foc2) resistance in chickpea.
Investment in family planning (FP) provides returns through a lifetime. Global evidence shows that FP is the second-best buy in terms of return on investment after liberalizing trade. In this study, we estimate the cumulative benefits of FP investments for India from 1991 to 2016 and project them up to 2061 with four scenarios of fertility levels. The findings suggest that India will have greater elasticity of FP investments to lifetime economic returns compared to the world average (cost–revenue ratio of 1:120). We have taken four scenarios for the goalpost, viz., 2.1, 1.8, 1.6, and 1.4. Although different scenarios of total fertility rate (TFR) levels at the goalpost (i.e., the year 2061) offer varied lifetime returns from FP, scenario TFR < 1.8 will be counterproductive and will reduce the potential benefits. With a comprehensive approach, if the country focuses more on improving the quality of FP services and on reducing the unmet need for FP to enhance reproductive health care and expand maximum opportunities for education and employment for both women and men, it can improve its potential to reap more benefits.
African mustard (Brassica tournefortii Gouan) is a problematic winter annual weed in Australia. Germination ecology of B. tournefortii may change in response to the maternal environments or habitats in which they grow. A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on germination and emergence of four populations of B. tournefortii that were collected from different fields. Averaged over populations, germination was stimulated by dark and was higher at 25/15 C (92%) as compared with 15/5 C (76%) and 35/25 C (45%). Averaged over light/dark regimes, at the lowest temperature regime (15/5 C), population A had higher germination than population D ; however, at the highest temperature regime (35/25 C), population D had higher germination than population A. Population B and C had higher germination in the temperature range of 25/15 C and 30/20 C compared with 15/5 C, 20/10 C, and 35/25 C. Seeds germinated at a wide range of alternating day/night temperatures (15/5 to 35/25 C), suggesting that seeds can germinate throughout the year if other optimum conditions are available. Population A was more tolerant to water and salt stress than population D. The sodium chloride concentration and osmotic potential required to inhibit 50% germination of population A was 68 mM and -0.60 MPa, respectively. Averaged over populations, seeds placed at 1cm soil depth had the highest emergence (54%), and burial depth of 8 cm resulted in 28% seedling emergence. Averaged over populations, wheat residue retention at 6000 kg ha-1 resulted in greater seedling emergence than the residue amount of 1000 kg ha-1. The results suggest that B. tournefortii will be favored in no-till systems and the seed bank of B. tournefortii could be managed by tillage regimes that bury its seeds below 8 cm depths and restrict seedling emergence and growth of new plants.
We performed secondary analyses of a postdischarge decolonization trial of MRSA carriers that reduced MRSA infection and hospitalization by 30%. Hospitalized MRSA infection was associated with 7.9 days of non-MRSA antibiotics and CDI in 3.9%. Preventing MRSA infection and associated hospitalization may reduce antibiotic use and CDI incidence.
Induction chemotherapy (iC) followed by concurrent chemoradiation has been shown to improve overall survival (OS) for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC). However, the survival benefit of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) versus conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (CFRT) following iC remains unclear.
Materials and methods:
The National Cancer Database (NCDB) was queried for primary stage III, cT4N0-1M0 LAPC (2004–15). Kaplan–Meier analysis, Cox proportional hazards method and propensity score matching were used.
Among 872 patients, 738 patients underwent CFRT and 134 patients received SBRT. Median follow-up was 24·3 and 22·9 months for the CFRT and SBRT cohorts, respectively. The use of SBRT showed improved survival in both the multivariate analysis (hazards ratio 0·78, p = 0·025) and 120 propensity-matched pairs (median OS 18·1 versus 15·9 months, p = 0·004) compared to the CFRT.
This NCDB analysis suggests survival benefit with the use of SBRT versus CFRT following iC for the LAPC.
This National Cancer Database (NCDB) analysis was performed to evaluate the outcomes of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) versus observation for resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant therapy (NT).
Materials and methods:
The NCDB was queried for primary stages I–II cT1-3N0-1M0 resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated with NT (2004–2015). Baseline patient, tumour and treatment characteristics were extracted. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). With a 6-month conditional landmark, Kaplan–Meier analysis, multivariable Cox proportional hazards method and 1:1 propensity score matching was used to analyse the data.
A total of 1,737 eligible patients were identified, of which 1,247 underwent post-operative observation compared to 490 with AC. The overall median follow-up was 34·7 months. The addition of AC showed improved survival on the multivariate analysis (HR 0·78, p < 0·001). AC remained statistically significant for improved OS, with a median OS of 26·3 months versus 22·3 months and 2-year OS of 63·9% versus 52·9% for the observation cohort (p < 0·001). Treatment interaction analysis showed OS benefit of AC for patients with smaller tumours.
Our findings suggest a survival benefit for AC compared to observation following NT and surgery for resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma, especially in patients with smaller tumours.
Prevalence of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) and sterile oat [Avena sterilis ssp. ludoviciana (Durieu) Gillet & Magne; referred to as A. sterilis hereafter], winter-season weeds, is increasing in the eastern grain region of Australia. Biological attributes of these weeds enable them to survive in a wide range of environments and under different weed infestation levels. The interference of A. fatua and A. sterilis in a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop was examined in southeast Queensland, Australia, through field studies in 2019 and 2020. Different infestation levels (0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 plants m−2) of A. fatua and A. sterilis were evaluated for their potential to cause yield losses in wheat. Based on a three-parameter logarithmic model, the A. fatua and A. sterilis infestation levels corresponding to 50% wheat yield loss were 15 and 16 plants m−2, respectively. The yield reduction was due to a reduced spike number per unit area because of an increased weed infestation level. At the highest weed infestation level (48 plants m−2), A. fatua and A. sterilis produced a maximum of 4,800 and 3,970 seeds m−2, respectively. Avena fatua exhibited lower seed retention (17% to 39%) than A. sterilis (64% to 80%) at wheat harvest, as most of the seeds of A. fatua had shattered at crop maturity. Our results implied that there is a good opportunity for harvest weed seed control if the paddock is infested with A. sterilis. This study suggests that in the absence of an integrated weed management strategy (using both chemical and nonchemical options), a high infestation of these weeds could cause a severe crop yield loss, increase weed seed production, and replenish the weed seedbank in the soil.
Vocal cord palsy is one of the recognised complications of complex cardiac surgery in the paediatric population. While there is an abundance of literature highlighting the presence of this complication, there is a scarcity of research focusing on the pathophysiology, presentation, diagnosis, and treatment options available for children affected by vocal cord palsy.
Materials and methods:
Electronic searches were conducted using the search terms: “Vocal Cord Palsy,” “VCP,” “Vocal Cord Injury,” “Paediatric Heart Surgery,” “Congenital Heart Surgery,” “Pediatric Heart Surgery,” “Vocal Fold Movement Impairment,” “VFMI,” “Vocal Fold Palsy,” “PDA Ligation.” The inclusion criteria were any articles discussing the outcomes of vocal cord palsy following paediatric cardiac surgery.
The two main populations affected by vocal cord palsy are children undergoing aortic arch surgery or those undergoing PDA ligation. There is paucity of prospective follow-up studies; it is therefore difficult to reliably assess the current approaches and the long-term implications of management options.
Vocal cord palsy can be a devastating complication following cardiac surgery, which if left untreated, could potentially result in debilitation of quality of life and in severe circumstances could even lead to death. Currently, there is not enough high-quality evidence in the literature to aid recognition, diagnosis, and management leaving clinicians to extrapolate evidence from adult studies to make clinical judgements. Future research with a focus on the paediatric perspective is necessary in providing evidence for good standards of care.
The present study was undertaken to analyze the relative abundance (RA) of pluripotency-associated genes (NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, c-MYC, and FOXD3) in different grades of immature oocytes and various stages of in vitro-produced buffalo embryos using RT-qPCR. Results showed that the RA of NANOG, OCT4, and FOXD3 transcripts was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in A grade oocytes compared with the other grades of oocytes. The RA of the c-MYC transcript was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in A grade compared with the C and D grades of oocytes, but the values did not differ significantly from the B grade of oocytes. The RA of the SOX2 transcript was almost similar in all grades of the oocytes. The expression levels of NANOG (P > 0.05), OCT4 (P > 0.05), c-MYC (P > 0.05) and SOX2 (P < 0.05) were higher in the blastocysts compared with the other stages of the embryos. Markedly, FOXD3 expression was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in 8–16-cell embryos compared with the 2-cell and 4-cell embryos and blastocyst, but did not differ significantly from the morula stage of the embryos. In the study, the majority of pluripotency-associated genes showed higher expression in A grade immature oocytes. Therefore, it is concluded that the A grade oocytes appeared to be more developmental competent and are suitable candidates for nuclear cloning research in buffalo. In buffalo, NANOG, OCT4, SOX2, and c-MYC are highly expressed in blastocysts compared with the other stages of embryos.