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‘Upendra Baxi’, the name, I read for the first time in or about 1968 just below the title ‘“The Little Done, the Vast Undone”: Some Reflections on Reading Granville Austin's The Indian Constitution’, published in the Journal of the Indian Law Institute. Impressed not only by the title and the size of the paper—107 pages—but also by its writing style, I continued to be confused about the nationality of the author until quite a few persons confirmed that he was very much an Indian who also worked at the Indian Law Institute for some time, even in the editorial team of the Journal of the Indian Law Institute. Confusion also persisted because around that time some foreign scholars like A. R. Blackshield had written quite long articles running into more than one issue of the journal, while no Indian scholar had ventured to do so until then. Later, I had the opportunity to read one of his articles, perhaps in the Jaipur Law Journal, on the issue of compensation for acquisition of property as decided in the Shantilal case, which in his opinion amounted to ‘paying peanuts for the gold coin’. The two writings showed similarity in his concern for sustaining traditional civil rights with little regard to the constitutional philosophy represented in the Directive Principles of State Policy. It was much later, perhaps after the 1975–1977 Emergency, when the Supreme Court shifted its emphasis from haves to have-nots that Professor Baxi also came up with ‘taking suffering seriously’ and removing weapons of impoverishment of people.
After shifting from the small-town Meerut College to Delhi University in 1970, sometime in late 1971 or early 1972 I heard that Professor Baxi had also been appointed as professor of law where I was a junior lecturer. I got the first opportunity to see him in person after he joined as Professor-in-Charge of Law Centre II of the Faculty of Law in 1973. Given the difference between his and my position at the university as well as the daunting impression left by his writings on me, I was always hesitant about introducing myself and talking to him.
The proposition to establish a separate and distinct judicial wing of state equipped with power of judicial review, accountable for upholding the constitution as the supreme law of the land, is a unique American contribution to political theory. Indeed, it was a revolutionary idea in the late eighteenth century, especially when contrasted with the notion of parliamentary supremacy so familiar in Great Britain. Distant from a threat to popular will, a separate judicial wing was premeditated to pledge democratic freedoms by averting the concentration of power in government. It was vital in the system of separation of powers and checks and balances to ensure a delicate steadiness between the separated powers-holders. Interestingly, the term ‘judicial review’, like the word ‘democracy’, is conspicuously absent from the US Constitution. However, that the founders were familiar with the concept cannot be doubted. By the time American Constitution was drafted, eight of the thirteen states had incorporated judicial review into their own Constitutions, and more than half of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention supported it. Alexander Hamilton explained:
[T]he judiciary, from the nature of its functions, will always be the least dangerous branch…. The judiciary … has no influence over either the sword or the purse; no direction either of the strength or the wealth of the society, and can take no active resolution whatever. It may truly be said to have neither Force nor Will but merely judgment….
He argued for judicial review by an independent judiciary as a necessary means to void all governmental actions contrary to the Constitution. He maintained that limits placed on the power of the federal legislative and executive branches in order to protect the rights of individuals ‘can be preserved in practice no other way that through … courts of justice, whose duty it must be to declare all acts contrary to … the Constitution void’. Without this power of judicial review, Hamilton avowed, ‘all the reservations of particular rights or privileges would amount to nothing’. He concluded:
No legislative act, therefore, contrary to the Constitution can be valid…. [T]he interpretation of the laws is the proper and peculiar province of the courts. A constitution is … a fundamental law. It therefore belongs to [judges] to ascertain its meaning as well as the meaning of any particular act proceeding from the legislative body.
A multitude of processes in hydrology and environmental engineering are either random or entail random components which are characterized by random variables. These variables are described by frequency distributions. This book provides an overview of different systems of frequency distributions, their properties, and applications to the fields of water resources and environmental engineering. A variety of systems are covered, including the Pearson system, Burr system, and systems commonly applied in economics, such as the D'Addario, Dagum, Stoppa, and Esteban systems. The latter chapters focus on the Singh system and the frequency distributions deduced from Bessel functions, maximum entropy theory, and the transformations of random variables. The final chapter introduces the genetic theory of frequency distributions. Using real-world data, this book provides a valuable reference for researchers, graduate students, and professionals interested in frequency analysis.
This book derives from research and fieldwork in the rural and tribal hinterland of India, particularly in the mineral rich states. It looks at the nuances of land and resource politics and summarizes the long-standing land acquisition and mining debate. It discusses the relevant theoretical arguments from inter-disciplinary perspectives and develops an argument through the case study of Singrauli, a region in Madhya Pradesh in India, that has seen various 'regimes of dispossession' in the last six decades in India. It looks at the legal and policy arguments around right to property, 'fair' compensation, public purpose and the resource curse debate, and at contested 'spaces' (left wing extremism) and resource-capital relationships.
Field surveys were conducted across the Blacklands region of Texas during 2016-2017 to document the distribution of herbicide-resistant Lolium spp. infesting winter wheat production fields in the region. A total of 68 populations (64 Italian ryegrass and 4 perennial ryegrass) were evaluated in a greenhouse for sensitivity to herbicides of three different sites of action, an ALS-inhibitor (mesosulfuron-methyl), two ACCase-inhibitors (diclofop-methyl and pinoxaden), and an EPSPS-inhibitor (glyphosate). Herbicides were applied at 2X the label recommended rates for mesosulfuron-methyl (29 g ai ha-1), diclofop-methyl (750 g ai ha-1), and pinoxaden (118 g ai ha-1); and 1X rate for glyphosate (868 g ae ha-1). The herbicide screenings were followed by dose-response assays of the most-resistant ryegrass population for each herbicide at eight rates (0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64X), compared to a susceptible population at six rates (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2X). The initial screening, as well as dose-response experiments, were conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications and two experimental runs. Survivors (<80% injury) were characterized as highly resistant (0-20% injury) or moderately resistant (21-79%). Results showed that 97, 92, 39, and 3% of the Italian ryegrass populations had survivors to diclofop-methyl, mesosulfuron-methyl, pinoxaden, and glyphosate, respectively. Of the four perennial ryegrass populations, three were resistant to diclofop-methyl and mesosulfuron-methyl, and one to pinoxaden. Perennial ryegrass populations did not exhibit any resistance to glyphosate. Dose-response assays revealed 37-, 196- and 23-fold resistance in Italian ryegrass to mesosulfuron-methyl, diclofop-methyl, and pinoxaden, respectively compared to a susceptible standard. One Italian ryegrass population exhibited three-way multiple resistance to ACCase-, ALS-, and EPSPS-inhibitors. The proliferation of multiple herbicide resistant ryegrass is a challenge to sustainable wheat production in Texas Blacklands and warrants diversified management strategies.
In this paper, a high gain wideband circularly polarized (CP) microstrip antenna is presented for broadband operation. The proposed structure comprised of a partially grounded printed monopole antenna loaded with a split ring resonator and a metallic reflector. By using the metallic reflector surface underneath the patch radiator results in the reflected waves in the same phase with main lobe radiation, thereby improving the gain and it also acts like a secondary radiator to generate wideband CP behavior in the proposed design. A gain enhancement of 4.3 dBi is achieved in the operating frequency band as compared with the design without a metallic reflector. The maximum gain achieved in the presented method is 8.6 dBic over the entire operating range. The proposed design shows a wideband behavior ranging from 4.30 to 9.10 GHz with the 10-dB impedance bandwidth of 71.64%. In addition, the proposed design yielded a broadside right hand CP radiation with a 3-dB axial ratio bandwidth of 33.88% from 4.98 to 7.01 GHz. The proposed antenna is fabricated and experimental results on reflection coefficient, gain, axial ratio, and radiation patterns concede well with simulation results.
Gas turbine blades feature multi-pass internal cooling channels, through which relatively colder air bled from the compressor is routed to cool internal walls. Under rotation, due to the influence of Coriolis force and centrifugal buoyancy, heat transfer at the trailing side enhances and that at the leading side reduces, for a radially outward flow. This non-uniform temperature distribution results in increased thermal stress, which is detrimental to blade life. In this study, a rotation configuration is presented which can negate the Coriolis force effect on heat and fluid flow, thereby maintaining uniform heat transfer on leading and trailing walls. A straight, smooth duct of unit aspect ratio is considered to demonstrate the concept and understand the fluid flow within the channel and its interaction with the walls. The new design is compared against the conventional rotation design. Numerical simulations under steady-state condition were carried out at a Reynolds number of 25000, where the Rotation numbers were varied as 0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25. Realisable version of k-
model was used for turbulence modelling. It was observed that new rotation (parallel) configuration’s heat transfer on leading and trailing sides were near similar, and trailing side was marginally higher compared to leading side. An interesting phenomenon of secondary Coriolis effect is reported which accounts for the minor differences in heat transfer augmentation between leading and trailing walls. Due to centrifugal buoyancy, the fluid is pushed towards the radially outward wall, resulting in a counter-rotating vortex pair, which also enhances the heat transfer on leading and trailing walls when compared to stationary case.
Deinotheriidae Bonaparte, 1845 is a family of browsing proboscideans that were widespread in the Old World during the Neogene. From Miocene deposits in the Indian subcontinent, deinotheres are known largely from dental remains. Both large and small species have been described from the region. Previously, only small deinothere species have been identified from Kutch in western India. In the fossiliferous Tapar beds in Kutch, dental remains have been referred to the small species Deinotherium sindiense Lydekker, 1880, but the specimens are too fragmentary to be systematically diagnostic. Here, we describe a large p4 of a deinothere from the Tapar beds and demonstrate that it is morphologically most similar to Deinotherium indicum Falconer, 1845, a large species of deinothere, thereby confirming the identity of deinotheres at Tapar. Deinotherium indicum from Tapar is larger than other deinotheres identified from Kutch and is the first occurrence of the species in the region. This new specimen helps constrain the age of the Tapar beds to the Tortonian and increases the biogeographic range of this species—hitherto only known from two localities on the subcontinent. This specimen also highlights the morphological diversity of South Asian deinothere p4s and allows us to reassess dental apomorphies used to delimit Indian deinothere species. Lastly, we argue that by the late Miocene, small deinotheres in Kutch were replaced by the large Deinotherium indicum.
Happiness economics as advocated by Frijters et al. makes three assumptions: that policy should be based on facts about the net effect of a factor on happiness; that wellbeing policy should be technocratic and centralized; and that the only credible objections come from critics who do not value happiness. We argue that all three should be rejected and that the science and policy of wellbeing should instead be pluralistic, context-sensitive and participatory.
The transition from child and adolescent to adult mental health services for young people with mental health problems is of international concern. Despite the high prevalence of mental disorders during adolescence and their tendency to continue during adulthood, the majority of young people do not experience continuity of care. The aim of this review paper is to unravel the complexity of transitional mental healthcare to clinicians, policy makers and mental health service managers, and to address challenges to a smooth transition process at all levels.
Concurrent chemoradiation is the definitive treatment for advanced cervical cancer. Pelvic radiation is known to damage the adjacent normal tissues thereby causing acute toxicities. The modern conformal radiation techniques like three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy are known to reduce the toxicities and improve clinical outcomes.
To retrospectively evaluate the frequency and severity of acute toxicities encountered during concurrent chemoradiation of locally advanced cancer cervix treated with 3D-CRT.
The medical case records of 174 cervical cancer patients treated between November 2015 and November 2018 were studied. One hundred and thirteen histologically proven locally advanced cancer cervix patients (Stage IIB–IIIB) treated with concurrent 3D conformal chemoradiation between were included in the study. Patients received 46 Gy in 23 fractions with concurrent weekly cisplatin (40 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, 15 and 22 of radiation. The study endpoints were treatment-related toxicities which were graded according to CTCAE version 5.0.
One hundred and thirteen patients were analysed for the study. Gastrointestinal toxicity was the predominant toxicity observed followed by haematological toxicity. 31·7% patients reported grade 1–2 diarrhoea and 39·7% reported grade 1–2 leucopenia. None of the patients reported grade 3 or higher toxicities. Treatment interruptions were noted due to these toxicities.
Concurrent chemoradiation is the definitive treatment for locally advanced carcinoma cervix with acceptable toxicities. Proper management measures should be undertaken for these toxicities to avoid treatment interruptions and ensure better treatment compliance.
Fragrant rice is an important export commodity of Thailand and obtaining seasonal production estimates well in advance is important for marketing and stock management. Rice4cast is a software platform that has been developed to forecast rice yield several months prior to harvesting; it links a rice model with a Minimum Data Set (MDS) and Weather Research Forecast (WRF) data. The current study aimed to parameterize and evaluate the model and to demonstrate the use of the Rice4cast platform in forecasting seasonal KDML 105 rice yield and production with local data set. The study area encompassed 77 districts in Thailand, covering 0.94 of the total area of KDML 105 in the country. Minimum Data Sets for the 2013–2015 growing seasons were used for model parameterization and evaluation. The annual statistics from the Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE) were used as a reference basis and planted areas from the Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA) was used for production estimation. Model evaluation showed good to fairly good agreement between the predicted and reported OAE yield. Production forecasts, however, over-estimated the OAE values considerably, primarily because of the use of GISTDA planted areas that were larger than the harvested areas in the production estimates. Adjustment of the planted areas to account for damaged areas need to be explored further. Nevertheless, the results demonstrated the capability of yield predictions with the Rice4cast, making it a valuable tool for in-season estimates for fragrant rice yield and production.
Post-processing imaging techniques allow high-resolution computed tomography and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the temporal bone to be superimposed and viewed simultaneously (fusion imaging). This study aimed to highlight the practical utility of fusion imaging for disease localisation and evaluation in a UK case series of primary and post-operative cholesteatoma.
Fusion of computed tomography and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance b1000 images was performed using specific software. Axial computed tomography images and coronal b1000 images were selected for fusion.
A case series of primary and post-operative cholesteatoma in which computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging fusion assisted the management of both the patient pathway and surgical approach is reviewed.
Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging fusion can assist in pre-operative surgical planning and patient counselling through assessment of disease in both primary and revision scenarios. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging fusion can assist the operative surgeon through accurate localisation that can influence both the operative technique and optimise operation theatre utilisation.
Anaemia affects approximately 69 % of Indian children aged 6–12 months, with Fe deficiency (ID) being a common cause. The effectiveness of micronutrient-fortified infant cereal in improving Fe status and neurodevelopment was evaluated in non-anaemic and mildly anaemic Indian infants. An intervention group (IC) enrolled at age 6 months consumed 50 g/d of rice-based cereal providing 3·75 mg Fe/d as ferrous fumarate for 6 months (n 80) and was compared with a matched static cross-sectional control group (CG) without intervention enrolled at age 12 months (n 80). Mean Hb was higher in IC (118·1 (sd 10·2) g/l) v. CG (109·5 (sd 16·4) g/l) at age 12 months (adjusted mean difference: 9·7 g/l; 95 % CI 5·1, 14·3; P < 0·001), while geometric mean serum ferritin tended to be higher (27·0 (–1 sd 13·4, +1 sd 54·4) v. 20·3 (–1 sd 7·5, +1 sd 55·0) ng/ml); P = 0·085) and soluble transferrin receptor was lower (1·70 (–1 sd 1·19, +1 sd 2·43) v. 2·07 (–1 sd 1·29, +1 sd 3·33) mg/l; P = 0·014). Anaemia (23 v. 45 %; P = 0·007) and ID (17 v. 40 %; P = 0·003) were lower in IC v. CG. Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition scores for language (P = 0·003), motor development (P = 0·018), social-emotional (P = 0·004) and adaptive behaviour (P < 0·001), but not cognitive development (P = 0·980), were higher in IC v. CG. No significant difference in anthropometric Z-scores was observed between the groups. Consuming a micronutrient-fortified infant cereal daily for 6 months during complementary feeding promoted better Fe status while reducing the risk for anaemia and ID and was associated with superior neurodevelopmental scores.
− ESG-Agency scholarship most commonly focuses on the global arena as well as Asia and Europe, with critical geographic gaps in Africa and the Middle East.− Climate change is the dominant issue studied in ESG-Agency research, followed by forests and fresh water. − To address the geographic imbalance in ESG-Agency research, scholars need to develop research projects and collaborations in understudied regions while also recruiting and supporting scholars in those regions to engage with this research agenda.
Deep learning using convolutional neural networks represents a form of artificial intelligence where computers recognise patterns and make predictions based upon provided datasets. This study aimed to determine if a convolutional neural network could be trained to differentiate the location of the anterior ethmoidal artery as either adhered to the skull base or within a bone ‘mesentery’ on sinus computed tomography scans.
Coronal sinus computed tomography scans were reviewed by two otolaryngology residents for anterior ethmoidal artery location and used as data for the Google Inception-V3 convolutional neural network base. The classification layer of Inception-V3 was retrained in Python (programming language software) using a transfer learning method to interpret the computed tomography images.
A total of 675 images from 388 patients were used to train the convolutional neural network. A further 197 unique images were used to test the algorithm; this yielded a total accuracy of 82.7 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval = 77.7–87.8), kappa statistic of 0.62 and area under the curve of 0.86.
Convolutional neural networks demonstrate promise in identifying clinically important structures in functional endoscopic sinus surgery, such as anterior ethmoidal artery location on pre-operative sinus computed tomography.
This article presents a geomorphological and micromorphological study of the locational context of four Indus civilisation archaeological sites—Alamgirpur, Masudpur I and VII, and Burj—all situated on the Sutlej-Yamuna interfluve in northwest India. The analysis indicates a strong correlation between settlement foundation and particular landscape positions on an extensive alluvial floodplain. Each of the analysed sites was located on sandy levees and/or riverbank deposits associated with former channels. These landscape positions would have situated settlements above the level of seasonal floodwater resulting from the Indian summer monsoon. In addition, the sandy soils on the margins of these elevated landscape positions would have been seasonally replenished with water, silt, clay, and fine organic matter, considerably enhancing their capacity for water retention and fertility and making them particularly suitable for agriculture. These former landscapes are obscured by recent modification and extensive agricultural practices. These geoarchaeological evaluations indicate that there is a hidden landscape context for each Indus settlement. This specific type of interaction between humans and their local context is an important aspect of Indus cultural adaptations to diverse, variable, and changing environments.