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Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 185 is devoted to the International Court of Justice's 2017 Order on Provisional Measures in Application of the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism and of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (Ukraine v. Russian Federation), 2019 judgment of the Norwegian Supreme Court in SIA North Star Ltd v. Public Prosecution Authority and the 2018 judgment of the United States Supreme Court in Animal Science Products Inc v. Hebei Welcome Pharmaceutical Co Ltd.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 184 is devoted to the 2018 judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in Ireland v. United Kingdom (Request for Revision of Judgment of 18 January 1978), the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in Al Nashiri v. Poland (concerning the United States' Central Intelligence Agency rendition programme) and the judgment of the Court of Appeal of Northern Ireland in Re Application by Finucane for Judicial Review (concerning the enforceability under domestic law of the procedural obligation under Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights).
Biological anthropology is a diverse field, with countless research methods and techniques in different sub-disciplines. This book takes a critical perspective to the current state of the field, exploring theory and practice in paleoanthropology, bioarchaeology, and ecology. Contributors challenge how evidence is discovered, collected and interpreted, and explain that researchers gain insights by de-familiarizing themselves from well-known methods and taking a different perspective - 'making the familiar strange'. The book covers how researchers' biases and assumptions affect the interpretation of topics such as human evolution and population movements; race, health, and disability; bodies and embodiment; and landscapes and ecology. A final chapter includes a critical assessment of new thinking about technology, in addition to the multilayered and complex nature of both research questions and evidence. This is an insightful text for researchers and graduate students in anthropology, biology, ecology, history and philosophy of science.
The term “video laryngoscopy” in its literal sense refers to the airway management technique whereby the larynx is visualized for intubation using a device that has a video camera at the tip of its blade. It is often used interchangeably with the term “indirect laryngoscopy”: visualization of the larynx without alignment of pharyngeal, laryngeal, and oral axes, using either “chip-on-tip technology” or a series of reflecting surfaces to look around the corner. The difference between the two terms is best appreciated by briefly looking at the history of laryngoscopy and the evolution of the devices used to facilitate it.
Literary authors, especially those with other occupations, must come to grips with the question of why they should write at all, when the world urges them to devote their time and energy to other pursuits. They must reach, at the very least, a provisional conclusion regarding the relation between the uncertain value of their literary efforts and the more immediate values of their non-authorial social identities. Geoffrey Chaucer, with his several middle-strata identities, grappled with this question in a remarkably searching, complex manner. In this book, Robert J. Meyer-Lee examines the multiform, dynamic meditation on the relation between literary value and social identity that Chaucer stitched into the heart of The Canterbury Tales. He traces the unfolding of this meditation through what he shows to be the tightly linked performances of Clerk, Merchant, Franklin and Squire, offering the first full-scale reading of this sequence.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 183 is devoted to the 2018 judgment of Court of Justice of the European Union on whether the United Kingdom can unilaterally revoke the notification of its intention to withdraw from the European Union Treaties, together with the judgment of the Inner House of the Scottish Court of Session that had referred that question to the Court (Wightman v. Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union), the landmark judgment of the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights concerning the rights of the Ogiek people (African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights v. Kenya) and the judgment of the English Court of Appeal concerning the scope of the United Kingdom's duty to investigate allegations of wrongdoing by British forces in Iraq (Al-Saadoon v. Secretary of State for Defence).
‘Tape-trading’ – the sharing of illicitly recorded material between hardcore fans – was a small but important part of popular music consumption during the analogue and CD eras. Although the sharing of the same kind of musical material still exists today, the emergence of various networked technologies has fundamentally changed many of the features of tape-trading as a social practice. For example, there has been a great expansion of the amount of material being shared and it is being shared more quickly. However, there has also arguably been a reduction in the circulation of some of the artistically most significant material and some of the strong social ties among collectors have arguably diluted. In a variety of ways, the transformations that have occurred in tape-trading mirror trends within mainstream digital music consumption.
In this paper, we study some connections between the polynomial ring
and the differential polynomial ring
. In particular, we answer a question posed by Smoktunowicz, which asks whether
is nil when
is nil, provided that
is an algebra over a field of positive characteristic and
is a locally nilpotent derivation.
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections in 592 hospitals immediately declined after federal value-based incentive program implementation, but this was fully attributable to a concurrent surveillance case definition revision. Post revision, more hospitals had favorable standardized infection ratios, likely leading to artificial inflation of their performance scores unrelated to changes in patient safety.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies were performed to assess the dose–response associations between fruit or vegetable consumption and the chance of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Studies on the association between fruit or vegetable consumption and the risk of the MetS published from January 1958 to 30 October 2018 were searched using the PubMed, MEDLINE and Embase databases, and the references of relevant articles were reviewed. Random-effects models were used to estimate the summary OR with 95 % CI for the MetS, and dose–response analysis was conducted to quantify the associations. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using Q and I2 statistics. A total of nine observational studies (seven cross-sectional studies and two cohort studies) were included in the meta-analysis. In a dose–response analysis of cohort studies and cross-sectional studies, the summary estimate of the MetS for an increase of 100 g/d in fruit consumption (nine studies) was 0·97 (95 % CI 0·95, 0·99; I2 = 26·7 %), whereas an increase of 100 g/d in vegetable consumption (nine studies) was not associated with a reduction in the MetS (OR 0·98; 95 % CI 0·96, 1·01; I2 = 54·6 %). In conclusion, an increased intake of fruit may reduce the risk of the MetS. For future research, prospective studies or randomised clinical trials are needed to identify the effects of fruits and vegetables by variety on the risk of the MetS.
This exploratory study examined the potential connections between informal digital learning of English (IDLE), strategic competence for cross-cultural communication and perception of varieties of English. A total of 266 Korean EFL university students, who had no overseas experience, filled in a questionnaire survey. Follow-up semi-structured interviews were also carried out to complement the quantitative data. Results of structural equation modelling showed that perception of varieties of English mediated the relationship between IDLE and strategic competence for cross-cultural communication. The qualitative data also confirmed that EFL students without overseas experience tended to adopt more effective cross-cultural communication strategies when their perception of different varieties of English became more positive through their engagement in IDLE activities. These results can offer pedagogical insights into how ELT researchers and teachers can better prepare contemporary English learners for cross-cultural interactions in multicultural environments, whether in digital or face-to-face milieus.
This study adopted a Kansei engineering methodology to examine users’ Kansei values toward automotive interior designs by conducting experiments under two models: sensory experience and perceived value evaluation models. In the sensory experience model, 60 participants were recruited to experience using 27 vehicle samples and to assign scores to eight Kansei keywords. Hayashi's quantification theory type 1 was used to calculate the weight of 12 interior space items and 40 interior design categories. In the perceived value evaluation model, 60 participants completed a questionnaire on the influence levels of the Kansei keywords on their Kansei values from the perspectives of four consumer perceived value dimensions. The questionnaire scores were then evaluated using factor analysis to extract nine primary factors affecting participants’ perceptions. This study determined that the interesting and dynamic perceptions corresponded to five design items under the Excitement Quality factors, vigorous and recreational perceptions corresponded to four items under the Relaxation and Comfort factor, and technological and luxurious perceptions corresponded to six items under the Luxury and Splendor factor and the Esteemed Image factor. These findings can help designers and researchers in the relevant sectors create automotive interior designs that fulfill the expectations of users.
This article is a detailed critical review of all the major scholarly publications in the rapidly expanding field of the Justinianic Plague published from 2000 through 2018. It updates the article in this journal by Dionysios Stathakopoulos from 2000, while also providing a detailed appraisal of the state of the field across all disciplines, including: literary studies, archaeology, DNA evidence, climatology, and epidemiology. We also identify the current paradigm for the Justinianic Plague as well as survey possible avenues forward for the field in the future.1
The mission of the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) is to catalyze the generation of innovative methods and technologies that will enhance the development, testing and implementation of diagnostics and therapeutics across a wide range of human diseases and conditions (1). NCATS funded a predoctoral TL1 training grant at our institution. We developed a novel team based Translational Journal Club utilizing three-member teams to find a basic science paper and two clinical study papers that covered a single therapeutic, either a pivotal study or a dissemination and implementation study; one member of the team presented a paper on the above topics in successive weeks. In addition, the trainees attended lectures on: how to design a pivotal clinical trial, dissemination and implementation, and drug development from a basic science discovery through its approval. From these presentations, the trainees appreciated the T0 to T3/4 continuum and its challenges. They also attended sessions on how to present scientific concepts, making them better communicators. The trainees found the Translational Journal club to be very rewarding, illuminating and providing a much better understanding of the translational research processes required to develop new therapies.
Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) in infants and young children are less explored in Asian populations. The Growing in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study examined associations between SSB intakes at ages 18 months and 5 years with adiposity measures at age 6 years. We studied Singaporean infants/children with SSB intake assessed by food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) at ages 18 months (n=555) and 5 years (n=767). The median (interquartile range) for SSB intakes is 28(5.5-98) ml at age 18 months and 111 (57-198) ml at age 5 years. Associations between SSB intakes (100 ml/day increments and tertile categories) and adiposity measures (BMI standard deviation scores (s.d. unit), sum of skinfolds (SSFs)) and overweight/obesity status were examined using multivariable linear and Poisson regression models, respectively. After adjusting for confounders and additionally for energy intake, SSB intakes at age 18 months were not significantly associated with later adiposity measures and overweight/obesity outcomes. In contrast, at age 5 years, SSB intakes when modelled as 100ml/day increments were associated with higher BMI by 0.09 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.16) s.d. unit, higher SSF thickness by 0.68 (0.06, 1.44) mm, and increased risk for overweight/obesity by 1.2 times (1.07, 1.23) at age 6 years. Trends were consistent with SSB intakes modelled as categorical tertiles. In summary, SSB intake in young childhood is associated with higher risks of adiposity and risk for overweight/obesity. Public health policies working to reduce SSB consumption need to focus on prevention programs targeted at young children.
Does populism threaten American democracy, and if so, what is the nature of that threat? In dialogue with the comparative literature on populism, this article considers the opportunity structure available to populist parties and candidates in the American political system. I argue that compared to most other democracies, the US system offers much less opportunity for organized populist parties but more opportunity for populist candidacies. Today’s major parties may also be more vulnerable to populist insurgency than at other points in US history because of (1) changes in communications technology, (2) the unpopularity of mainstream parties and party leaders, and (3) representation gaps created by an increasingly racialized party system. Although no democratic system is immune to deterioration, the US constitutional system impedes authoritarian populism, just as it obstructs party power generally. But the vulnerability of the major parties to populist insurgency poses a threat to liberal democratic norms in the United States, just as it does elsewhere.
Previous research has suggested that the production of speech rhythm in a second language (L2) or foreign language is influenced by the speaker’s first language rhythm. However, it is less clear how the production of L2 rhythm is affected by the learners’ L2 proficiency, largely due to the lack of rhythm metrics that show consistent results between studies. We examined the production of English rhythm by 75 Korean learners with the rhythm metrics proposed in previous studies (pairwise variability indices and interval measures). We also devised new sentence stress measures (i.e., accentuation rate and accentuation error rate) and investigated whether these new measures can quantify rhythmic differences between the learners. The results found no rhythm metric that significantly correlated with proficiency in the expected direction. In contrast, we found a significant correlation between the learners’ proficiency levels and both measures of sentence stress, showing that less-proficient learners placed sentence stress on more words and made more sentence stress errors. This demonstrates that our measures of sentence stress can be used as effective features for assessing Korean learners’ English rhythm proficiency.