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This research communication aims to test the hypothesis that B-Mode, colour Doppler ultrasonographic measurements and characteristics can identify mastitis in dairy cows. A total of 102 lactating cows were divided into 3 groups: cows in which all mammary quarters were CMT-negative, cows with CMT-positive mammary quarters and cows with clinical mastitis in at least one quarter. Colour Doppler ultrasonography measurements of the supramammary lymph nodes revealed that distortion-type vascular morphology, the rate of type 4 vascular densities and the incidence of mixed-type vascular distributions were highest in the clinical mastitis group, whereas the frequency of avascularity in supramammary lymph nodes was highest in the CMT-negative group. All differences were significant. In conclusion, the use of B-mode and colour Doppler ultrasonographic measurements of the supramammary lymph nodes can provide useful information about the current condition of mastitis in cows, although its diagnostic potential remains to be determined.
We presented a 55-year-old male patient with isolated left ventricular non-compaction who was admitted to our emergency department for chest pain and exertional dyspnoea. He was hospitalised due to anterior myocardial infarction, and during his assessment, isolated left ventricular non-compaction was diagnosed.
Patent ductus arteriosus is among the most common congenital heart diseases. With the increasing use of transcatheter closure procedures, the incidence of complications related to the procedure has increased. Embolization of the ductus closure device to the pulmonary artery is a very rare complication. Since those procedures are often performed under non-operating room anesthesia, anesthetic management of such patients is of great importance. Herein, anesthetic management of embolization of the ductus closure device to the pulmonary artery in a little girl was presented. This is the first case regarding the anesthetic management of such complication.
We give a bound on the primes dividing the denominators of invariants of Picard curves of genus 3 with complex multiplication. Unlike earlier bounds in genus 2 and 3, our bound is based, not on bad reduction of curves, but on a very explicit type of good reduction. This approach simultaneously yields a simplification of the proof and much sharper bounds. In fact, unlike all previous bounds for genus 3, our bound is sharp enough for use in explicit constructions of Picard curves.
Otitis media with effusion is a clinical manifestation characterised by inflammation of middle-ear mucosa. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin and roxithromycin on a histamine-induced animal model of otitis media with effusion.
The animals were divided into five groups, receiving erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin or saline solution. The guinea pigs in the study groups received erythromycin (40 mg/kg/day), clarithromycin (15 mg/kg/day), azithromycin (10 mg/kg/day) or roxithromycin (10 mg/kg/day) for 3 days by gastric tube. Four hours after the end of the administration, histamine solution was injected into the right middle ear.
The lowest neutrophil density value obtained using stereological techniques was in the azithromycin group (0.86 ± 0.25 × 10−5/μm3), while the highest value was observed in the control group (6.68 ± 3.12 × 10−5/μm3). The anti-inflammatory properties of clarithromycin, azithromycin and roxithromycin were similar to one another, but better than that of erythromycin.
The use of macrolide antibiotics is recommended, as they show antibacterial and anti-inflammatory efficacy in otitis media with effusion.
The present study focused on the mineralogical and chemical characterization and firing behaviour of clays from the Lake Van region and compared them with the same characteristics established for two ancient pot sherds. Four pottery clays collected from Kutki and Kuşluk in the Kesan Valley to the south, from Kavakbaşı to the southwest and from Bardakçı village on the east coast of Lake Van were analysed by X-ray diffraction to identify mineralogical composition (bulk clays and <2 μm fractions after heating at 300–500°C and ethylene glycol solvation). Further analyses were conducted to determine the size distribution, chemical composition and physical properties of test bodies derived from these clays. The in situ weathered schist forming the primary micaceous red clays which are suitable for local pottery production are characterized by large muscovite-sericite-illite and small calcite contents. In contrast, the Bardakçı clays are dominated by large smectite contents and are only used sparingly in mixtures of local pottery production because they undergo firing shrinkage and present drying and firing flaws in the fired bodies. Firing ranges of ~800–900°C were inferred from the mineralogy and colours of the two ancient sherds from Kutki. As a result of mineralogical analysis of fired and unfired test bodies of these pottery clays and pot sherds, two different types of pastes were determined for pottery production in the Lake Van region: metamorphic and volcanic paste, the former characterized by a calcite-poor and mica-sericite-rich matrix and the latter by large smectite and small calcite contents.
Carbon monoxide poisoning may cause myocardial toxicity and cardiac autonomic dysfunction, which may contribute to the development of life-threatening arrhythmias. We investigated the potential association between acute carbon monoxide exposure and cardiac autonomic function measured by heart rate variability.
The present study included 40 children aged 1–17 years who were admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit with acute carbon monoxide poisoning and 40 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. Carboxyhaemoglobin and cardiac enzymes were measured at admission. Electrocardiography was performed on admission and discharge, and 24-hour Holter electrocardiography was digitally recorded. Heart rate variability was analysed at both time points – 24-hour recordings – and frequency domains – from the first 5 minutes of intensive care unit admission.
Time domain and frequency indices such as high-frequency spectral power and low-frequency spectral power were similar between patient and control groups (p>0.05). The ratio of low-frequency spectral power to high-frequency spectral power was significantly lower in the carbon monoxide poisoning group (p<0.001) and was negatively correlated with carboxyhaemoglobin levels (r=−0.351, p<0.05). The mean heart rate, QT dispersion, corrected QT dispersion, and P dispersion values were higher in the carbon monoxide poisoning group (p<0.05) on admission. The QT dispersion and corrected QT dispersion remained longer in the carbon monoxide poisoning group compared with controls on discharge (p<0.05).
The frequency domain indices, especially the ratio of low-frequency spectral power to high-frequency spectral power, are useful for the evaluation of the cardiac autonomic function. The decreased low-frequency spectral power-to-high-frequency spectral power ratio reflects a balance of the autonomic nervous system, which shifted to parasympathetic components.
In this work, we built all sky index files from Gaia DR1 catalogue for the high-precision astrometric field solution and the precise WCS coordinates of the moving objects. For this, we used build-astrometry-index program as a part of astrometry.net code suit. Additionally, we added astrometry.net's WCS solution tool to our previously developed software which is a fast and robust pipeline for detecting moving objects such as asteroids and comets in sequential FITS images, called A-Track. Moreover, MPC module was added to A-Track. This module is linked to an asteroid database to name the found objects and prepare the MPC file to report the results. After these innovations, we tested a new version of the A-Track code on photometrical data taken by the SI-1100 CCD with 1-meter telescope at TÜBİTAK National Observatory, Antalya. The pipeline can be used to analyse large data archives or daily sequential data. The code is hosted on GitHub under the GNU GPL v3 license.
To investigate the effects of different suture materials in the nasal cavity on encrustation and micro-organism colonisation.
Four different suture materials were used to suture the nasal septum. The effects of suture materials on intranasal encrustation were evaluated with anterior rhinoscopy. The sutures were removed and evaluated in terms of micro-organism colonisation on the 7th and 21st post-operative days.
Monofilament sutures were found to cause less encrustation and micro-organism colonisation. There was increased late-stage encrustation if an absorbable monofilament suture remained in place for a long time. The removal of a non-absorbable monofilament suture in the early or late post-operative period made no difference in terms of micro-organism growth on the suture.
The material and physical characteristics of sutures placed inside the nose may indirectly affect the healing process. It may be more appropriate to use different materials depending on the length of time the suture is to remain in place.
We are trying to reduce the largest uncertainties in using white dwarf stars as Galactic chronometers by understanding the details of carbon crystalliazation that currently result in a 1–2 Gyr uncertainty in the ages of the oldest white dwarf stars. We expect the coolest white dwarf stars to have crystallized interiors, but theory also predicts hotter white dwarf stars, if they are massive enough, will also have some core crystallization. BPM 37093 is the first discovered of only a handful of known massive white dwarf stars that are also pulsating DAV, or ZZ Ceti, variables. Our approach is to use the pulsations to constrain the core composition and amount of crystallization. Here we report our analysis of 4 hours of continuous time series spectroscopy of BPM 37093 with Gemini South combined with simultaneous time-series photometry from Mt. John (New Zealand), SAAO, PROMPT, and Complejo Astronomico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina).
We have recently computed a grid of 3D radiation-hydrodynamical simulations for the atmosphere of pure-hydrogen DA white dwarfs in the range 5.0 < log g < 9.0. Our grid covers the full ZZ Ceti instability strip where pulsating DA white dwarfs are located. We have significantly improved the theoretical framework to study these objects by removing the free parameters of 1D convection, which were previously a major modeling hurdle. We present improved atmospheric parameter determinations based on spectroscopic fits with 3D model spectra, allowing for an updated definition of the empirical edges of the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Our 3D simulations also precisely predict the depth of the convection zones, narrowing down the internal layers where pulsation are being driven. We hope that these 3D effects will be included in asteroseismic models in the future to predict the region of the HR diagram where white dwarfs are expected to pulsate.
The basement of the Central Pontides, and by implication that of Crimea, consists of pre-Permian low-grade metaclastic rocks intruded by latest Permian – Early Carboniferous (305–290 Ma) granitoids. Further up in the stratigraphic sequence are Triassic limestones, which are now preserved as olistoliths in the deformed Upper Triassic turbidites. New conodont and foraminifera data indicate an Anisian to Carnian (Middle to Late Triassic) age for these hemi-pelagic Hallstatt-type limestones. The siliciclastic turbidites surrounding the Triassic limestone contain the Norian (Late Triassic) bivalve Monotis salinaria; the same species is also found in the Tauric series in Crimea. The Upper Triassic flysch in the Central Pontides is locally underlain by basaltic pillow lavas and includes kilometre-size tectonic slices of serpentinite. Both the flysch and the serpentinite are cut by an undeformed acidic intrusion with an Ar–Ar biotite age of 162 ± 4 Ma (Callovian–Oxfordian). This indicates that the serpentinite was emplaced into the turbidites before Middle Jurassic time, most probably during latest Triassic or Early Jurassic time, and that the deformation of the Triassic sequence pre-dates the Middle Jurassic. Regional geological data from the circum-Black Sea region, including widespread Upper Triassic flysch, Upper Triassic eclogites and blueschists of oceanic crustal affinity, and apparent absence of a ‘Cimmerian continent’ between the Cretaceous and Triassic accretionary complexes indicate that the latest Triassic Cimmeride orogeny was accretionary rather than collisional and is probably related to the collision and accretion of an oceanic plateau to the southern active margin of Laurasia.
Gabapentin, a third-generation antiepileptic drug, is a structural analogue of γ-aminobutyric acid, which is an important mediator of central nervous system. There is clinical data indicating its effectiveness in the treatment of psychiatric illnesses such as bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders.
We aimed to investigate the antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects and mechanisms of gabapentin in rats.
Material and Methods
Female Spraque–Dawley rats weighing 250±20 g were used. A total of 13 groups were formed, each containing 8 rats: gabapentin (5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg), amitriptyline (10 mg/kg), sertraline (5 mg/kg), diazepam (5 mg/kg), ketamine (10 mg/kg), gabapentin 20 mg/kg was also combined with amitriptyline (10 mg/kg), sertraline (5 mg/kg), diazepam (5 mg/kg) and ketamine (10 mg/kg). All the drugs were used intraperitoneally as single dose. Saline was administered to the control group. Elevated plus maze and forced swimming tests were used as experimental models of anxiety and depression, respectively.
It was observed that gabapentin showed an anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like effect in all doses in rats. Its antidepressant effect was found to be the same as the antidepressant effects of amitriptyline and sertraline. There was no change in the antidepressant effect when gabapentin was combined with amitriptyline and ketamine, but there was an increase when combined with sertraline and diazepam. Gabapentin and amitriptyline showed similar anxiolytic effect, whereas ketamine and diazepam had more potent anxiolytic effect compared with them.
These data suggest that gabapentin may possess antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects.
The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the pectoralis major myofascial flap on pharyngocutaneous fistula formation and time to oral feeding.
This retrospective study reviewed 155 total laryngectomies. Patients were divided into two main groups. Group 1 included 110 patients who were treated primarily by total laryngectomy and group 2 comprised 45 patients who were treated by salvage laryngectomy with or without a pectoralis major myofascial flap.
The use of a pectoralis major myofascial flap did not have a significant effect on pharyngocutaneous fistula formation in the salvage group (p = 0.376). When comparing the oral feeding day of patients with pharyngocutaneous fistula, a significant difference was observed between the salvage group with pectoralis major myofascial flap reinforcement and the salvage group without pectoralis major myofascial flap reinforcement (p = 0.004).
Our study demonstrated that pectoralis major myofascial flap reinforcement did not decrease the rate of pharyngocutaneous fistula formation. Instead, it prevented the formation of large fistulas that would require surgical management, and showed a similar time to oral feeding and length of hospital stay to primary laryngectomy.
Aim: We aimed to investigate the role of adiponectin in acute rheumatic fever by evaluating correlations with cytokines and acute-phase reactants. Methods: Patients were divided into three groups by clinical findings. Group 1 included 8 patients with only chorea, Group 2 included 13 patients with arthritis and carditis, and Group 3 included 12 patients with only carditis. A total of 54 age- and gender-matched children were enrolled in the control group. Blood samples were drawn for analysing acute-phase reactants, adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interleukin-8 levels at baseline on Days 2, 5, 10, and 15, and at 8 weeks. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between baseline age, gender, body mass index, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein levels of the study and control groups (p>0.05). No correlation was found between baseline plasma adiponectin levels, age, body mass index, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinising hormone, oestradiol, total testosterone, and blood lipid levels of the study and control groups (p>0.05). We found that adiponectin and interleukin-6 levels increased, tumour necrosis factor-α levels decreased, and interleukin-8 levels remained unchanged in acute rheumatic fever, which is an inflammatory disease. Moreover, adiponectin level was higher and tumour necrosis factor-α level was lower in the improvement period in comparison with the acute period, particularly in the carditis group. Conclusion: It was considered that, increasing throughout the treatment period, adiponectin may have anti-inflammatory effects in acute rheumatic fever. In addition, adiponectin levels are associated with a decline in inflammatory mediators in rheumatic fever.
Introduction: We aimed to evaluate changes in the cerebral blood supply in children during vasovagal syncope and to clarify the diagnostic value of transcranial Doppler for vasovagal syncope. Materials and methods: Patients were divided into three groups. Group 1 consisted of 31 patients who were symptomatic and whose head-up tilt test was positive. Group 2 comprised 21 patients who were symptomatic but whose tilt test was negative. Group 3 included 22 healthy children. For the diagnosis of vasovagal syncope, the tilt test was applied. For the subjects of the patient and control groups, the tilt test was repeated. The flow rates of bilateral middle cerebral arteries were continuously and simultaneously recorded with temporal window transcranial Doppler. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups with respect to age and gender distribution (p>0.05). When the bed was at an upright position, the maximum blood flow rate of the right middle cerebral artery was lower in Group 1 than in Group 2, although the decrease was more significant in comparison to the healthy control group (p<0.05). The minimum blood flow rate of the right middle cerebral artery was lower in Group 1 than the Group 2, although the decrease was more significant in comparison with the healthy control group (p<0.05). The maximum blood flow rate of the left middle cerebral artery was significantly lower in Group 1 than in the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Minimum and maximum blood flow rates are significantly decreased in patients tilt test (+) patients with vasovagal syncope during orthostatic stress.
Purpose: Previous studies have shown that the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism in children with breath holding may be generalised autonomic dysregulation. Thus, we performed cardiac rhythm and heart rate variability analyses using 24-hour Holter monitoring to evaluate the cardiac effects of autonomic dysregulation in children with breath-holding spells. Methods: We performed cardiac rhythm and heart rate analyses using 24-hour Holter monitors to evaluate the cardiac effects of autonomic dysregulation in children during a breath-holding spell. Our study group consisted of 68 children with breath-holding spells – 56 cyanotic type and 12 pallid type – and 39 healthy controls. Results: Clinical and heart rate variability results were compared between each spell type – cyanotic or pallid – and the control group; significant differences (p<0.05) in standard deviation of all NN intervals, mean of the standard deviations of all NN intervals for all 5-minute segments, percentage of differences between adjacent RR intervals >50 ms, and square root of the mean of the sum of squares of the differences between adjacent NN intervals values were found between the pallid and cyanotic groups. Conclusions: Holter monitoring for 24 hours and heart rate variability parameters, particularly in children with pallid spells, are crucial for evaluation of cardiac rhythm changes.