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This article challenges the restrictive association of critical theory with the Frankfurt School by exploring the differential reception of Hegel by German critical thinkers on both sides of the Iron Curtain after 1945. In the West, Theodor Adorno held Hegelian ‘identity thinking’ partly responsible for the atrocities of National Socialism. Meanwhile in the East, Ernst Bloch turned Hegel into a weapon against the communist regime. The difference between Adorno and Bloch’s positions is shown to turn on the relationship between speculation, dialectics and critique. Whereas for Adorno Hegelian speculation was the root of dangerous identity thinking, Bloch saw the repression of speculative thought as a cornerstone of totalitarianism. However, it is argued that ultimately Bloch and Adorno were united in their reception of Hegel by a shared understanding that the goal of critical theory, namely the transformation of the social totality, could not be achieved without utopian speculation.
Epidemiological evidence indicates that high consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products reduces the risk of chronic diseases such as CVD and cancer. Such potential benefits are often ascribed to high concentrations of lycopene present in tomato products. Mainly from the results of in vitro studies, potential biological mechanisms by which carotenoids could protect against heart disease and cancer have been suggested. These include cholesterol reduction, inhibition of oxidation processes, modulation of inflammatory markers, enhanced intercellular communication, inhibition of tumourigenesis and induction of apoptosis, metabolism to retinoids and antiangiogenic effects. However, with regard to CVD, results from intervention studies gave mixed results. Over fifty human intervention trials with lycopene supplements or tomato-based products have been conducted to date, the majority being underpowered. Many showed some beneficial effects but mostly on non-established cardiovascular risk markers such as lipid peroxidation, DNA oxidative damage, platelet activation and inflammatory markers. Only a few studies showed improvement in lipid profiles, C reactive protein and blood pressure. However, recent findings indicate that lycopene could exert cardiovascular protection by lowering HDL-associated inflammation, as well as by modulating HDL functionality towards an antiatherogenic phenotype. Furthermore, in vitro studies indicate that lycopene could modulate T lymphocyte activity, which would also inhibit atherogenic processes and confer cardiovascular protection. These findings also suggest that HDL functionality deserves further consideration as a potential early marker for CVD risk, modifiable by dietary factors such as lycopene.
The objective of this article was to explore the extent of the scientific literature and evidence base about the psychosocial needs of students conducting research in the fields of advanced cancer and palliative care.
A scoping review was conducted in major scientific databases. English-language articles on the topic of interest were retained if they were published in peer-reviewed journals between 1995 and 2013.
A total of 3,161 references were screened, and 7 were retained for analysis. Only two articles were empirical studies involving the collection of primary empirical data. The remaining ones were commentaries and personal reflections. While there is a near absence of empirical research about the psychosocial needs of students, several commentaries suggest that students in this field have a high need for support. Three themes were identified in the limited literature retrieved: (1) the importance of proper training and supervision; (2) the availability of emotional support structures; and (3) the use of effective and deliberate self-care strategies.
Significance of results:
This scoping review demonstrates that little is known about the psychosocial needs of students conducting research in advanced cancer and palliative care. However, what is clear is that there is a large emotional impact on student researchers engaged in this type of work. Adequate training and support is needed to promote students' health and well-being, encourage retention of students, and foster high-quality studies. More empirical data are needed to better understand the experiences of students conducting this type of research and to ensure the sustainability of training and research in this field.
The concept of a responsibility to protect (R2P) in international law is said to involve three distinct dimensions: (a) the responsibility to prevent (i.e. to address the root causes of a crisis); (b) the responsibility to react (i.e. to respond – either non-forcibly or, in extreme circumstances, forcibly – to a humanitarian crisis); and (c) the responsibility to rebuild (i.e. to promote recovery and reconciliation following a humanitarian crisis). By far the most controversial aspect relates to action taken within the context of R2P involving the use of armed force – in other words, actions that tended to be discussed previously under the (somewhat problematic) banner of humanitarian intervention. Although it might be argued that the scope of R2P is considerably broader, the proposition that discussion of R2P rather than humanitarian intervention reflects a linguistic trick, rather than a substantive change in relation to (at least the second arm of) the concept and its aims, can be illustrated by the approach of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS) in its development: R2P was to be relevant to ‘civil wars, insurgencies, state repression and state collapse’, but required ‘a new approach to intervention’, informed and framed by the language used. In particular, the ICISS explained that:
‘the expression “humanitarian intervention” did not help to carry the debate forward, [… whilst …] the language of past debates arguing for or against a “right to intervene” by one state on the territory of another state is outdated and unhelpful. We prefer to talk not of a “right to intervene” but of a “responsibility to protect”’.
Both of these important contributions examine R2P in the controversial context of the use of force and military activity. First, Vito Todeschini considers the possibility of expanding the scope of R2P to include the crime of aggression. Given that the stated objective of the doctrine is to protect civilian populations from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing, it might indeed seem incongruous that there is no mention of what could be considered to be the other most serious international crime.
Calcium is considered important in buffering excess stomach acid in mammals, including horses. Control of stomach acid is important in preventing the development of ulcers within the stomach lining, which, in horses, are considered to be caused by acid splashing. Algae supplements contain various minerals which are in natural form, as seen in all plant and feedstuffs. The current trial was conducted to examine if a high calcium algae supplement had any impact on gastric ulceration in horses, which may be due to buffering stomach acid, reducing the pH in a gradual manner, without resorting to medication. Ten horses, of either thoroughbred, standardbred or sport horse breed, were selected on the basis of the presence of ulcers in their stomach, as ascertained by endoscopy. The average ulceration score before algae supplementation was 2.2 ± 0.75 according to the EGUC scoring system. The horses were then maintained on their normal diet (unchanged from the initial ulcer scoring) by the owner with the addition of 40 g per day of the high calcium, algae based Maxia Complete® (Seahorse Supplements Ltd, Christchurch, NZ) for thirty days (T30). All horses were then re endoscoped to assess any change in ulceration score. All horses showed a significant improvement in ulcer score, with seven having a score of zero (fully healed, no evidence of further ulceration) and two with a score of one (some residual inflammation or keratinosis in areas of healed ulcers). This resulted in a mean score of 0.3 ± 0.48 (P < 0.0001: T0 versus T30) at the end of the study. This trial demonstrated that feeding an organic form of high calcium from algae reduced ulceration in horses.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions associated with urine nitrogen (N) deposition during grazing are a major component of greenhouse gas emissions from domestic livestock. The present study investigated the relationship between urine N loading rate and the efficacy of a nitrification inhibitor, dicyandiamide (DCD), on cumulative N2O emissions from a grassland soil in Ireland over 80 and 360-day periods in 2009/10 and 2010/11. A diminishing curvilinear relationship between urine N rate and cumulative N2O emissions was observed in both years. Despite this increase in cumulative N2O emissions, the emission factor (EF3) for N2O decreased with increasing urine N rate from, on average, 0·24 to 0·10% (urine applied at 300 and 1000 kg N/ha, respectively), during an 80-day measurement period. This was probably the result of a factor other than N, such as carbon (C), limiting the production of N2O. The efficacy of DCD varied with urine N loading rate, and inter-annual variability in efficacy was also observed. Dicyandiamide was effective at reducing N2O production for 50–80 days after urine application, which accounted for the major period of elevated daily flux. However, DCD was ineffective at reducing N2O production after this period, which was likely a result of its removal from the soil via degradation and leaching.
Laryngeal papillomatosis is characterised by multiple papillomata affecting the upper respiratory tract. This condition is difficult to treat due to its recurrent nature. Treatment often involves surgical debulking. A number of non-surgical treatments have been reported. Intralesional cidofovir, a cytosine nucleoside analogue with antiviral activity, has been used in an attempt to manage the condition. We present a novel technique of administering cidofovir in a case of recurrent laryngotracheal papillomata.
Accurate field data on the paddock area affected by cow urine depositions are critical to the estimation and modelling of nitrogen (N) losses and N management in grazed pasture systems. A new technique using survey-grade global positioning system (GPS) technology was developed to precisely measure the paddock spatial area coverage, diversity and distribution of dairy cattle urine patches in grazed paddocks over time. A 4-year study was conducted on the Lincoln University Dairy Farm (LUDF), Canterbury, New Zealand, from 2003 to 2007. Twelve field plots, each 100 m2 in area, were established on typical grazing areas of the farm. All urine and dung deposits within the plots were visually identified, the pasture response area (radius) measured and position marked with survey-grade GPS. The plots were grazed as part of the normal grazing rotation of the farm and urine and dung deposits measured at 12-week intervals. The data were collated using spatial (GIS) software and an assessment of annual urine patch coverage and spatial distribution was made. Grazing intensities ranged from 17 645 to 30 295 cow grazing h/ha/yr. Mean annual areas of urine patches ranged from 0·34 to 0·40 m2 (4-year mean 0·37±0·009 m2), with small but significant variation between years and seasons. Mean annual urine patch numbers were 6240±124 patches/ha/yr. The mean proportional area coverage for a single sampling event or season was 0·058 and the mean proportional annual urine patch coverage was 0·232±0·0071. There was a strong linear relationship between annual cow grazing h/ha and urine patch numbers/ha (R2=0·69) and also annual urine patch area coverage (R2=0·77). Within the stocking densities observed in this study, an annual increase of 10 000 cow grazing h/ha increased urine patch numbers by 1800 urine patches/ha/yr and annual urine patch area coverage by 0·07. This study presents new quantitative data on urine patch size, numbers and the spatial coverage of patches on a temporal basis.
A serological survey carried out on 1379 school-children from Skye and Mallaig in the N.W. of Scotland failed to show evidence of subclinical cases of hydatidosis. There appeared to be a relatively low level of exposure to the parasite, as judged by ELISA and IHA tests. Thirty-one children reacted positively in the ELISA; only one child had a transient positive result in the IHA test. Surveillance of these children will be continued for the present but the duration required is uncertain. The local population appeared to be well aware of the mode of spread of the parasite and the methods for its control.
At one time the teaching of vocabulary was unfashionable, and it was widely assumed that lexical acquisition could be left to look after itself (Nation, 1990). More recent years, however, have seen renewed recognition of the importance of vocabulary when learning a new language (Griffiths, 2003, 2006). Dating back to around the time that Rubin's article on the good language learner was published in 1975, there has been a more learner-focused view of education. In line with this perspective, there has been increasing interest not only in what is being learnt, but also in language learners themselves, and how they approach the task of learning.
In order to take control of their vocabulary learning, learners need to know what vocabulary to learn, how to go about learning it, and how to assess and monitor their progress. This vocabulary requires a range of learning strategies, such as learning the vocabulary of the subject area (Chung, 2003; Chung and Nation, 2003; Coxhead, 2000) or guessing from context (Nagy, Herman and Anderson, 1985). There are also deliberate learning strategies such as word part analysis, learning using word cards and dictionary use (Nation, 2001) that are important shortcuts to vocabulary growth. Corson (1997), furthermore, argues that new vocabulary needs to be learned both receptively and productively because it is by productive use of such vocabulary that learners signal that they have become part of their particular communities.
Blood group O is associated with lower expression of von Willebrand factor suggesting a relative bleeding tendency. A lower admission rate for epistaxis among Asians compared with Caucasians has also been noted, with one explanation being higher prevalence of blood group O among Caucasians. This study investigates whether blood group O is over-represented in patients admitted with epistaxis.
A retrospective study was conducted, using computerised hospital in-patient and blood bank databases to identify Caucasians admitted with epistaxis between January 2000 and December 2005 inclusive. The control group consisted of 500 consecutive patients who had a primary total hip arthroplasty and 500 consecutive patients who gave birth within the delivery suite.
1261 Caucasians admitted with epistaxis were identified. Among epistaxis patients, 50.44 per cent were blood group O but among the control group this was 45.10 per cent (chi-square test p = 0.008).
Blood group O appears over-represented in Caucasian patients admitted with epistaxis, compared with the control population, raising the possibility that blood group O is a risk factor for epistaxis.
Interviewing can provide unique opportunities for professionals to gain some understanding of the child's subjective experience, where other means of data collection are inappropriate and other sources of data are less valid. This article is concerned with the principles and practicalities of interviewing children for the purposes of health-related research. It draws on the knowledge gained from three decades of research involving interviewing young people in many contexts, including health care, social welfare and child protection. A conceptual framework is presented to illustrate the interactive and iterative processes that occur between interviewer and interviewee, and the pivotal importance of context in shaping any interaction. The influences of the young person's linguistic, cognitive and social skills are discussed. The effects of the gender and ethnicity of both the researcher and the researched are considered in relation to the conduct of the interview, and the influence of adult biases and perspectives on the evaluation and interpretation of data is explored.
The administration of anaesthetic gases to an infant undergoing an endolaryngeal laser procedure can be difficult. We describe the use of a Magill's nasal sucker and an anaesthetic connector to maintain anaesthesia during laser surgery.
Balloon dilatation is well established in the management of enteric strictures. The use of this technique in the pharynx has been reported under radiological and endoscopic guidance. We describe the hydrostatic dilatation of a benign pharyngeal stricture in a laryngectomy patient under local anaesthetic, without radiological guidance, in the ENT out-patient department. This procedure was effective and well tolerated in a patient who required regular dilatations.
The international laws of war have traditionally been divided strictly between those applicable to international armed conflicts, and those which are, in contrast, applicable to non-international, or internal, armed conflicts. On 22 March 1996, however, the President of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), Antonio Cassese, sent a memorandum to the members of the Preparatory Committee for the Establishment of the International Criminal Court. The memorandum outlined the conclusions of the ICTY Appeals Chamber on this distinction, and asserted that:
since the 1930s, there has been a gradual blurring of the distinction between the customary international law rules governing international conflicts and those governing internal conflicts. Put another way, there has been a convergence of two bodies of international law with the result that internal strife is now governed to a large extent by the rules and principles which had traditionally only applied to international conflicts. … [R]egarding the formation of customary international law rules to protect those who are not taking part in the hostilities, … this convergence has come about due largely to the following four factors: (1) the increase in the number of civil conflicts; (2) the increase in the level of cruelty of internal conflicts; (3) the increasing interdependence of States; and, (4) the influence of universal human rights standards. The Appeals Chamber then turned to the extension of the rules regarding methods and means of warfare to internal armed conflicts and concluded that a similar blurring had occurred. In short, … certain norms apply as customary international law to internal and international armed conflicts alike.