Skip to main content Accessibility help

Potential of mango (Mangifera indica L.) seed kernel as a feed ingredient for poultry: a review

  • S.S. DIARRA (a1)


Mango (Mangifera indica) is an important fruit crop grown in the tropics mostly for its pulp. Mango seed, which represents between 20-60% of the fruit, has limited food or industrial use in most producing countries and is therefore wasted. The kernel contained in the seed (mango seed kernel: MSK) is a good source of carbohydrates (58-80%), contains moderate quantities of proteins (6-13%) and fat (6-16%). The protein of MSK has a good essential amino acid profile and its oil is a good source of stearic and linoleic acids. However, despite these attributes MSK contains a number of anti-nutritional factors (e.g. tannins, phytate, cyanide, antitrypsin, oxalate and saponins) which limit its utilisation in poultry diets. Amongst these factors, tannins are largely responsible for the poor nutritional value of MSK. Several processing methods have been used to reduce the concentration of anti-nutritional factors in MSK and improve its utilisation by poultry. The following paper reviews the composition (nutrients and anti-nutrients) of MSK, recommendations for its use in poultry diets and processing methods to enhance its utilisation by poultry.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author: or


Hide All
ABDULLAHI, I. (2012) Nutritive value of differently processed mango seed kernel (local variety (kanbiri) and mixed samples) meal in broiler diets. Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, M.Sc. Thesis, 85p.
ABDULRASHID, M., AGWUNOBI, L.N., JONATHAN, G.E. and ABDUL, S.B. (2007) Carcass quality characteristics of broiler finisher fed taro (Colocasia esculanta) cocoyam meal, in: Book of Abstract of the 32nd Annual Conf Nig Soc Anim Prod (NSAP), held at the University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; 32: 457-460.
AMAO, E.A. and SIYANBOLA, M.F. (2013) Carcass and physiological response of broilers fed dry heat treated mango (Mangifera indica) kernel based diets. International Journal of Livestock Production 4 (3): 30-34.
ANAND, J.C. and MAINI, S.B. (1997) Utilisation of fruits and vegetable wastes. Indian Food Parker 51 (2): 45-63.
ARMSTRONG, W.D., FEATHERSTON, W.R. and ROGLER, J.C. (1974) Effects of bird resistant sorghum grains and various commercial tannins on chick performance. Poultry Science 53: 2137-2142.
AROGBA, S.S. (1999) The performance of processed mango (Mangifera indica) kernel flour in a model food system. Bioresource Technology 70: 277-281.
AROGBA, S.S. (2000) Mango (Mangifera indica) kernel: chromatographic analysis of the tannin, and stability study of the associated polyphenol oxidative activity. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 13 (2): 149-156.
ASHOUSH, I.S. and GADALLAH, M.G.E. (2011) Utilisation of mango peels and seed kernels powders as sources of phytochemicals in biscuit. World Journal of Dairy Food Science 6 (1): 35-42.
DAKARE, M.A., DANLADI, A.A., ABEL, S.A. and SUNDAY, E.A. (2012) Effects of processing techniques on the nutritional and antinutritional contents of mango (Mangifera indica) seed kernel. World Journal of Young Researchers 2 (3): 55-59.
DAMRON, W.S. (2009) Introduction to Animal Science: Global, Biological, Social, and Industry Perspectives, 4th edition, Pearson Education Limited, New Jersey, 841p.
DHINGRA, S. and KAPOOR, A.C. (1985) Nutritive value of mango seed kernel. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 6: 752-756.
DIARRA, S.S. and USMAN, B.A. (2008) Growth performance and some blood variables of broiler chickens fed raw or boiled mango kernel meal. International Journal of Poultry Science 7 (4): 315-318.
DIARRA, S.S., USMAN, B.A. and IGWEBUIKE, J.U. (2010) Replacement value of boiled mango kernel meal for maize in broiler finisher diets. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 5 (1): 47-52.
DIARRA, S.S., SALEH, B., KWARI, I.D. and IGWEBUIKE, J.U. (2011) Evaluation of boiled mango kernel meal as energy source by broiler chickens in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Nature 2 (2): 270-274.
EKPE, O.O., UMOH, I.B. and EKA, O.U. (2007) Effect of a typical rural processing method on the proximate composition and amino acid profile of bush mango seeds (Irvingia gabonensis). African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development 7 (1): 1-12.
EL BOUSHY, A.R.Y. and VAN DER POEL, A.F.B. (2000) Handbook of poultry feed from waste: processing and use. Springer-Verlag New York, 428 p.
EL SAADANY, R.M.A., FODA, Y.H. and EL SAADANY, F.M. (1980) Studies on starch extractability from mango seed (Mangifera indica) as a new source of starch. Starch/Starke 32: 113-116.
ELKIN, R.G., FEATHERSTON, W.R and ROGLER, J.C. (1978) Influence of Sorghum tannins on methionine utilisation in chicks. Poultry Science 57: 704-710.
FAO (2011) FAOSTAT. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations.
FARAG, M.D.E-D.H. (2001) The enhancement of the nutritive value of mango seed kernels for poultry by thermal treatment and radiation processing. Archiv fϋr Tierernährung 54 (1): 61-79.
FOWOMOLA, M.A. (2010) Some nutrients and antinutrients contents of mango (Mangifera indica) seed. African Journal of Food Science 4 (8): 472-476.
GARG, N. and TANDON, D.K. (1997) Amylase activity of A. oryzae grown on mango kernel after certain pre-treatments and aeration. Indian Food Parker 51 (5): 26-29.
GLICK, Z. and JOSLYN, M.A. (1970) Food intake depression and other metabolic effects of tannic acid in the rat. Journal of Nutrition 100: 509-515.
GUNSTONE, F.D. (2006) Minor specialty oils., in: Fereidoon Shahidi, 2006. Nutraceutical and specialty lipids and their co-products. CRC Taylor and Francis 91-126.
HEWITT, D. and FORD, J.E. (1982) Influence of tannins on the nutritional quality of food grains. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 41: 7-17.
JADHAV, N.V. and SIDDIQUI, M.F. (2010) Handbook of poultry production and management, 2nd edition, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, New Delhi, India, 383 p.
JANSMAN, A.J., HUISMAN, J. and VANDER POEL, A.F.B. (1989) Faba beans with different tannin contents: Ileal and fecal digestibility in piglets and growth in chickens, in: HUISMAN, J., VAN DER POEL, A.F.B. & LIENER, I.E. (Eds) Recent Advances in Research in Antinutritional Factors in Legume Seeds, pp. 176-180 (Washington, Netherlands, Pudoc).
JANSMAN, A.J., VERSTEGEN, M.W.A., HUISMAN, J. and VAN DEN BERG, J.W. (1995) Effects of hulls of faba beans (Vircia faba L.) with low or high content of condensed tannins on the apparent ileal and fecal digestibility of nutrients and the excretion of endogenous protein in ileal digesta and feces of pigs. Journal of Animal Science 73: 118-127.
JEDELE, S., HAU, A.M. and VON OPPEN, M. (2003) An analysis of the world market for mangos and its importance for developing countries. Deutscher Tropentag 2003, Göttingen, October 8-10, 2003. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development.
JONES, D.E. (1965) Banana tannin and its reaction with polyethylene glycol. Nature 206: 299-300.
JONES, W.T. and MANGAN, J.I. (1977) Complexes of the condensed tannin of Sainfoin (Orobrychis vicifolia) with fraction I, leaf meal protein with polyethylene glycol and pH. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 28: 126-136.
JOSEPH, J.K. and ABOLAJI, J. (1997) Effects of replacing maize with graded levels of cooked Nigerian mango-seed kernels (Mangifera indica) on the performance, carcass yield and meat quality of broiler chickens. Bioresource Technology 61: 99-102.
KANSCI, G., KOUBALA, B.B. and MBOME, I.L. (2008) Biochemical and physicochemical properties of four mango varieties and some quality characteristics of their jams. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation 32 (4): 644-655.
KIFLEWAHID, B., POTTS, G.R. and DRYSDALE, R.M. (1982) By-products utilisation for animal production. Proceedings of a workshop held on applied research in Nairobi, Kenya, 26-30 September, p.76. Published by the International Development Centre, Queen Street, Ottawa, Canada.
KITTIPHOOM, S. (2012) Utilisation of mango seed. International Food Research Journal 19 (4): 1325-1335.
LAKSHMINARAYANA, G., CHANDRASEKHARA RAO, T. and RAMALINGASWAMY, P.A. (1983) Varietal variations in content, characteristics and composition of mango seeds and fat. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 60 (1): 88-89.
MAISUTHISAKUL, P. and GORDON, M.H. (2009) Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of mango seed kernel by product. Food Chemistry 117 (2): 332-341.
MAGHSOUD, B. and AKBAR, T. (2011) Effect of tannin-binding agent (Polyehtylene Glycol and Polyvinylpyrrolidone) supplementation on In vitro gas production kinetics of some grape yield by-products. ISRN Veterinary Science Vol 2011 (2011), Article ID 780540, 8 pages doi: 10.5402/2011/780540.
MEDINA, C., PAREDES, A., RODRIGUEZ, M.E., MORENO, M., BELEN-CAMACHO, D., GARCIA, D. and OJEDA, C. (2010) Evaluation of two starch extraction methods from cotyledons of mango. Bioagro 22 (1): 67-74.
MESSAY, B.L. and SHIMELIS, A.E. (2012) Functional and physicochemical properties of mango seed kernels and wheat flour and their blends for biscuit production. African Journal of Food Science and Technology 3 (9): 193-203.
MIRGHANI, M.E.S., YOSUF, F., KABBASH, N.A., VEJAYAN, J. and YOSUF, Z.B.M. (2009) Antibacterial activity of mango kernel extracts. Journal of Applied Sciences 9 (17): 3013-3019.
NRC (1998) Nutrient Requirement of Poultry, 10th Revised Edition. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
ODUNSI, A.A. (2005) Response of laying hens and growing broilers to the dietary inclusion of mango (Mangifera indica L.) seed kernel meal. Tropical Animal Health and Production 37 (2): 139-150.
OPEKE, L.K. (1982) Tropical Tree Crops. John Willey and Sons, NY, 312pp.
ORWA, C., MUTUA, A., KINDT, R., JAMNADASS, R. and ANTHONY, S. (2009) Agroforestree Database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre, Nairobi, Kenya.
PANIGRAHI, S.A. (1996) Review of the potential for using cassava root meal in poultry diets. Tropical tuber crops: problems, prospects and future strategies, pp: 416-428.
PATIL, S.N., NETKE, S.P. and DABADGHAO, A.K. (1982) Processing and feeding value of mango seed kernel for starting chicks. British Poultry Science 23 (3): 185-19.
PERCIVAL, S.S., TALCOTT, S.T., CHIN, S.T., MALLAK, A.C., LOUNDS-SINGLETON, A. and PETTIT-MOORE, J. (2006) Neoplastic transformation of BALB/3T3 cells and cell cycle of HL-60 cells are inhibited by mango (Mangifera indica) juice and mango juice extracts. Journal of Nutrition 136 (5): 1300-1304.
PERILLA, N.S., CRUZ, M.P., DE BELALCAZAR, F. and DIAZ, G.I. (1997) Effect of temperature of wet extrusion on the nutritional value of full-fat soyabean for broiler chickens. British Poultry Science 38: 412-416.
POTTER, D.K. and FULLER, H.L. (1968) Metabolic fate of dietary tannins in chickens. Journal of Nutrition 96: 187-191.
RAVINDRAN, V. and RAJAGURU, A.S.B. (1985) Nutrient contents of some unconventional poultry feed. Indian Journal of Animal Science 55: 58-61.
RAVINDRAN, V. and SIVAKANESAN, R. (1996) The nutritive value of mango seed kernels for starting chicks. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 71: 245-250.
ROCHA RIBEIRO, S.M., QUEIROZ, J.H., LOPES RIBEIRO de QUEIROZ, M.E., CAMPOS, F.M. and PINHEIRO SANT'ANA, H.M. (2007) Antioxidant in mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 62 (1): 13-17.
RODRIGUEZ, J., DI PIERRO, D., GIOIA, M., MONACO, S., DELGADO, R., COLETTA, M. and MARINI, S. (2006) Effects of a natural extract from Mangifera indica L. and its active compound, mangiferin, on energy state and lipid peroxidation of red blood cells. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta 1760 (9): 1333-1342.
SALUNKHE, D.K. CHEVAN, J.K. and KADAM, S.S. (1990) Dietary tannins: consequences and remedies. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.
SANDHU, K.S. and LIM, S.T. (2007) Structural characteristics and in vitro digestibility of mango kernel starches (Mangifera indica L.). Food Chemistry 107: 92-97.
SANON, H. and KANWE, A. (2010) Valorisation of mango peels and seed kernels in animal feeding: nutritive value and voluntary feed intake by sheep. Advances in Animal Biosciences 1 (2): 445-446.
SCHIEBER, A., STINTZING, F.C. and CARLE, R. (2001) By-products of plant food processing as a source of functional compounds-recent development. Trends in Food Science and Technology 12: 401-413.
SUKONTHASING, S., WONGRAKPANICH, M. and VERHEIJ, E.W.M. (1991) Mangifera indica L. Record from Proseabase, in: VERHEIJ, E.W.M. & CORONEL, R.E. (Eds) PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
TEGUIA, A. (1995) Substituting ground mango kernels (Mangifera indica L.) for maize in broiler starter diets. Animal Feed Science Technology 56 (1-2): 155-158.
VOHRA, P., DRATZER, F.H. and JOSLYN, M.A. (1966) The growth depressing and toxic effects of tannins to chicks. Poultry Science 45: 135-142.
WHO (1985) Energy and Protein Requirement. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

World's Poultry Science Journal
  • ISSN: 0043-9339
  • EISSN: 1743-4777
  • URL: /core/journals/world-s-poultry-science-journal
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed