Skip to main content Accessibility help

Solar/EM energy harvester for autonomous operation of a monitoring sensor platform

  • Kyriaki Niotaki (a1), Francesco Giuppi (a1), Apostolos Georgiadis (a1) and Ana Collado (a1)


In this paper, a hybrid solar/electromagnetic (EM) energy harvester that operates at 2.45 GHz is presented. The proposed harvester integrates the solar cells in the same area as the rectenna element obtaining a compact implementation. The radiating element that forms part of the rectenna is a cavity-backed slot antenna based on substrate-integrated waveguide technology, which allows for a compact, single substrate implementation. The radiating element is connected to a circuit that provides both the rectification of the incoming EM signals and the collection of DC energy coming from solar cells. A single-substrate prototype has been implemented, demonstrating an overall power conversion efficiency up to 30%, depending on the incoming radio frequency signal level and the ambient light conditions.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author: K. Niotaki Email:


Hide All
[1]Georgiadis, A.; Andia-Vera, G.; Collado, A.: Rectenna design and optimization using reciprocity theory and harmonic balance analysis for electromagnetic (EM) energy harvesting. IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., 9 (2010), 444446.
[2]Hagerty, J.A.; Helmbrecht, F.B.; McCalpin, W.H.; Zane, R.; Popovic, Z.B.: Recycling ambient microwave energy with broad-band rectenna arrays. IEEE Transact. Microw. Theory Techn., 52 (3) (2004), 10141024.
[3]Rizzoli, V.; Bichicchi, G.; Costanzo, A.; Donzelli, F.; Masotti, D.: CAD of multi-resonator rectenna for micro-power generation, in Proc. EuMC, Rome, Italy, October 2009, 1684–1687.
[4]Guenda, L.; Collado, A.; Carvalho, N.B.; Georgiadis, A.; Niotaki, K.: Electromagnetic geo-referenced footprints for energy harvesting systems, in 2012 IEEE Radio and Wireless Symp. (RWS), 15–18 January 2012, 339, 342.
[5]Vyas, R.; Nishimoto, H.; Tentzeris, M.; Kawahara, Y.; Asami, T.: A battery-less, energy harvesting device for long range scavenging of wireless power from terrestrial TV broadcasts, in 2012 IEEE MTT-S Int. Microwave Symp. Digest (MTT), 17–22 June 2012, 1, 3.
[6]Georgiadis, A.; Collado, A.; Via, S.; Meneses, C.: Flexible hybrid solar/EM energy harvester for autonomous sensors, in Proc. 2011 IEEE MTT-S Intl. Microwave Symp. (IMS), Baltimore, US, June 5–10, 2011.
[7]Collado, A.; Georgiadis, A.: Conformal hybrid solar and electromagnetic (EM) energy harvesting rectenna. IEEE Transact. Circuits Syst. I, 60 (8) (2013), 22252234.
[8]Shinohara, N.: Power without wires. IEEE Microw. Mag., 12 (7) (2011), S64S73.
[9]Shinohara, N.; Matsumoto, H.: Dependence of DC output of a rectenna array on the method of interconnection of its array elements. Wiley Electr. Eng. Japan, 125 (1) (1998), 917.
[10]Popovic, Z.: Wireless powering of battery-less sensors through low power RF energy harvesting, in Workshop on RF Energy Harvesting: Challenges and Applications, 2014 Radio Wireless Week (RWW), Newport Beach, 19–22 January 2014.
[11]Giuppi, F.; Georgiadis, A.; Collado, A.; Bozzi, M.: A compact, single-layer substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) cavity-backed active antenna oscillator. IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett., 11 (2012), 431433.
[12]Giuppi, F.; Georgiadis, A.; Bozzi, M.; Collado, A.; Perregrini, L.: Active antenna oscillator systems in substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) technology, in EuCAP, Barcelona, ES, April 2010.
[13]Danesh, M.; Long, J.R.: Photovoltaic antennas for autonomous wireless systems. IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II, Exp. Briefs, 58 (12) (2011), 807811.
[14]Tanaka, M.; Suzuki, R.; Suzuki, Y.; Araki, K.: Microstrip antenna with solar cells for microsatellites. in Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Antennas Propagation (AP-S), vol. 2, January 20–24, 1994, 786–789.

Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Solar/EM energy harvester for autonomous operation of a monitoring sensor platform

  • Kyriaki Niotaki (a1), Francesco Giuppi (a1), Apostolos Georgiadis (a1) and Ana Collado (a1)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.