The disodium salt of 3,6-endoxohexahydrophthalic acid (disodium endothal) and the derivative identified by the manufacturer as the di-N,N′-dimethylococoamine salt of endothal (coded as TD-47) were particularly effective upon submersed species of aquatic vegetation as contact herbicides. Disodium endothal at concentrations of 0.5 to 10.0 ppmw was effective in controlling approximately 50 per cent of the 19 species of plants involved in 270 tests. TD-47 at concentrations of 0.02 to 10.0 ppmw trolled 77 per cent of the 11 plant species in 94 tests.
Algae (Chara, Cladophora, Pithophora, and Spirogyra) were more effectively controlled by TD-47 than by disodium endothal. Although TD-47 was at least 10 times more herbicidal than disodium endothal, it was about 100 times more toxic to fish. Disodium endothal was more than 50 per cent effective on submersed aquatic plants at rates in excess of 2.5 ppmw with a wide margin of safety in fish (4- to 10-fold). Disodium endothal had a median tolerance limit ranging from 95 to 150 ppmw in the aggregate of nine fish species tested extensively. Median tolerance limits for TD-47 ranged from about 0.06 to 0.3 ppmw for five species of fish. TD-47 applied at a concentration lethal to fish (0.3 to 1.0 ppmw) was effective as a dual management tool in controlling vegetation and achieving partial or complete renovation of stunted fish populations.
Young, growing vegetation was most susceptible to control, and best results were achieved at water temperatures exceeding 60 F. Higher rates were required to kill plants as they matured and stands became dense. Endothal liquid formulations were superior to granules in controlling algal mats, floating and emergent plants. Granules were more effective on submersed rooted plants.
TD-47 residues were of short duration. The rate of disappearance depended on time and concentration. Detectable residues disappeared within 8 days following application of 0.3 ppmw and within 2 weeks for 0.6 ppmw. However, 1.0 to 3.0 ppmw took up to 25 days to disappear. Some residues were found in fish-food organisms from treated enclosures 3 weeks after application. Fish flesh showed no absorption of endothal-armeens at sublethal concentrations. Intraperitoneal injection of endothal into fish produced a disturbance of the osmoregulation. The physiological effect of endothal was measured by chemical analysis of blood serum.