Skip to main content Accessibility help

Utilizing Flumioxazin for Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua) Control in Bermudagrass Turf

  • Michael L. Flessner (a1), J. Scott McElroy (a1), James H. Baird (a2) and Brent D. Barnes (a2)


Annual bluegrass is a problematic weed in bermudagrass and other intensively maintained turfgrasses. Flumioxazin is reported to control annual bluegrass both PRE and POST; however, as a contact herbicide, flumioxazin injures actively growing bermudagrass. Research was conducted in Alabama and California to evaluate optimal flumioxazin application timing for annual bluegrass control, bermudagrass response, and overall sward quality in the field, and to assess annual bluegrass control at various growth stages in the greenhouse. November and December application timings resulted in the best balance of the three parameters. When bermudagrass was not dormant at application, treatment resulted in necrosis of green tissues and thus induced dormancy. The herbicide-induced dormancy resulted in better sward quality due to more uniform and therefore more aesthetically pleasing dormant turfgrass relative to natural dormancy. Flumioxazin at 0.43 kg ai ha−1 resulted in better annual bluegrass control and improved sward quality relative to 0.21 kg ha−1. Incomplete POST annual bluegrass control from later applications was attributed to larger weed size, limiting the effectiveness of this contact herbicide. Greenhouse data corroborated field results and indicated that flumioxazin at 0.43 kg ha−1 controlled ≥ 95% of annual bluegrass up to two tillers. Flumioxazin can be utilized for PRE and POST annual bluegrass control, but utilization of this herbicide is limited to dormant bermudagrass unless induced dormancy can be tolerated, and POST control is limited to annual bluegrass plants ≤ two tillers in size.

Poa annua es una maleza problemática en el césped bermuda y otros céspedes manejados en forma intensiva. Flumioxazin ha sido reportado para el control PRE y POST de P. annua. Sin embargo, como herbicida de contacto, flumioxazin daña al césped bermuda que está creciendo activamente. La presente investigación fue realizada en Alabama y California para evaluar el momento óptimo de aplicación de flumioxazin para el control de P. annua, la respuesta del césped bermuda, y la calidad general del área cubierta con el césped, y para evaluar el control de P. annua en varios estados de desarrollo en el invernadero. Aplicaciones realizadas en Noviembre y Diciembre resultaron en el mejor balance entre esos tres parámetros. Cuando el césped bermuda no estuvo latente al momento de aplicación, los tratamientos resultaron en necrosis del tejido verde y consecuentemente latencia inducida. La latencia inducida por el herbicida resultó en una mejor calidad del área con césped debido a que se obtuvo un césped latente más uniforme y estéticamente más placentero en comparación con la latencia natural. Flumioxazin a 0.43 kg ai ha−1 resultó en un control de P. annua mayor y mejoró la calidad del césped al compararse con 0.21 kg ha−1. El control parcial de P. annua obtenido con las aplicaciones POST posteriores fue atribuido al mayor tamaño de las malezas, lo que limitó la eficacia de este herbicida de contacto. Los datos de invernadero corroboraron los resultados de campo e indicaron que flumioxazin a 0.43 kg ha−1 controló ≥95% de P. annua de hasta dos hijuelos. Flumioxazin puede usarse para el control PRE y POST de P. annua, pero la utilización de este herbicida se limita al césped bermuda latente, a menos que se pueda tolerar la latencia inducida, y el control POST se limita a plantas de P. annua en estado de crecimiento ≤dos hijuelos.


Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail:


Hide All
Anonymous. 2009. SureGuard® herbicide product label. Valent Publication No. 2009-SGD-0001. Walnut Creek, CA Valent U.S.A. 12 p.
Anonymous. 2010. Valor SX® herbicide product label. Valent Publication No. 2010-VLR-0001. Walnut Creek, CA Valent U.S.A. 27 p.
Anonymous. 2012. Herbicide resistant annual bluegrass globally. Available at Accessed: June 5, 2012.
Baylis, A. D. 2000. Why glyphosate is a global herbicide: strengths, weaknesses and prospects. Pest. Manag. Sci. 56:299308.
Beard, J. B., Rieke, P. E., Turgeon, A. J., and Vargas, J. M. 1978. Annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.) description, adaptation, culture and control. Research Report. East Lansing, MI Michigan State University Agricultural Experiment Station. 352 p.
Bingham, S. W., Schmidt, R. E., and Curry, C. K. 1969. Annual bluegrass control in overseeded bermudagrass putting green turf. Agron. J. 61:9089011.
Bingham, S. W. and Shaver, R. L. 1979. Effectiveness of herbicide programs for annual bluegrass (Poa annua) control in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon). Weed Sci. 27:367370.
Borggaard, O. K. and Gimsing, A. L. 2007. Fate of glyphosate in soil and the possibility of leaching to ground and surface waters: a review. Pest. Manag. Sci. 64:411456.
Brosnan, J. T., Breeden, G. K., McCullough, P. E., and Henry, G. M. 2012a. PRE and POST control of annual bluegrass (Poa annua) with indaziflam. Weed Technol. 26:4853.
Brosnan, J. T., Breeden, G. K., and Mueller, T. C. 2012b. A glyphosate-resistant biotype of annual bluegrass in Tennessee. Weed Sci. 60: 97100.
Callahan, L. M. and McDonald, E. R. 1992. Effectiveness of bensulide in controlling two annual bluegrass (Poa annua) subspecies. Weed Technol. 6:97103.
Christians, N. 2006. Control options: what's next for Poa annua control? Grounds Maint. Mar.: 2830.
Cutulle, M. A., McElroy, J. S., Millwood, R. W., Sorochan, J. C., and Stewart, C. N. 2009. Selection of bioassay method influences detection of annual bluegrass resistance to mitotic-inhibiting herbicides. Crop Sci. 49:10881095.
Duke, S. O., Lydon, J., Becerril, J. M., Sherman, T. D., Lehnen, L. P., and Matsumoto, H. 1991. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase-inhibiting herbicides. Weed Sci. 39:465473.
Gibeault, V. A. and Goetze, N. R. 1972. Annual meadow-grass. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 48:111.
Heap, I. M. 1997. The occurrence of herbicide-resistant weeds worldwide. Pestic. Sci. 51:235243.
Isgrigg, J., Yelverton, F. H., Brownie, C., and Warren, L. S. 2002. Dinitroaniline-resistant annual bluegrass in North Carolina. Weed Sci. 50:8690.
Itoh, M., Kobayashi, H., and Ueki, K. 1997. Variation in seed germination and dormancy of Poa annua L. in golf course. Grassland Sci. (Japan) 42:299306.
Johnson, B. J. 1980. Postemergence winter weed control in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) Turf. Weed Sci. 28:385392.
Kaminski, J. E. and Dernoeden, P. H. 2007. Seasonal Poa annua L. emergence patterns in Maryland. Crop Sci. 47:775781.
Kelly, S. T., Coats, E., and Luthe, D. S. 1999. Mode of resistance of triazine-resistant annual bluegrass (Poa annua). Weed Technol. 13:747752.
Littell, R. C., Milliken, G. A., Stroup, W. W., Wolfinger, R. D., and Schabenberger, O. 2006. SAS® for Mixed Models. 2nd ed. Cary, NC SAS Institute. Pp. 1556.
McCullough, P., Nutt, B., and Chamberlin, J. 2012. Flumioxazin efficacy for controlling annual bluegrass and smooth crabgrass in bermudagrass. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc. 65:136.
McElroy, J. S., Flessner, M. L., Wang, Z., Dane, F., Walker, R. H., and Wehtje, G. R. 2013. A Trp574 to Leu amino acid substitution in the ALS gene of annual bluegrass associates with resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Weed Sci. 61:2125.
McElroy, J. S., Walker, R. H., Wehtje, G. R., and van Santen, E. 2004. Annual bluegrass (Poa annua) populations exhibit variation in germination response to temperature, photoperiod, and fenarimol. Weed Sci. 52:4752.
Perry, D. H., McElroy, J. S., Dane, F. D., van Santen, E., and Walker, R. H. 2012. Triazine-resistant annual bluegrass (Poa annua) populations with Ser264 mutation are resistant to amicarbazone. Weed Sci. 60:355359.
Perry, D. H., McElroy, J. S., Doroh, M. C., and Walker, R. H. 2011. Indaziflam utilization for controlling problematic turfgrass weeds. Appl. Turfgrass Sci. Pages 17. DOI:.
Senseman, S. A., ed. 2007. Herbicide Handbook. 9th ed. Lawrence, KS: Weed Science Society of America. Pp. 12, 191218, 243–248.
Straw, C., Beck, L. L., Cooper, T., and Henry, G. M. 2012. Preemergence rescuegrass control with indaziflam and flumioxazin in bermudagrass. Proc. South. Weed Sci. Soc. 65:44.
Toler, J. E., Willis, T. G., Estes, A. G., and McCarty, L. B. 2007. Postemergence annual bluegrass control in dormant nonoverseeded bermudagrass turf. HortSci. 42:670672.
Wauchope, R. D., Butler, T. M., Hornsby, A. G., Augustijn-Beckers, P.W.M., and Burt, J. P. 1992. The SCS/CES pesticide properties database for environmental decision-making. Rev. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 123:1164.



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed