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Utilizing Flumioxazin for Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua) Control in Bermudagrass Turf

  • Michael L. Flessner (a1), J. Scott McElroy (a1), James H. Baird (a2) and Brent D. Barnes (a2)

Abstract

Annual bluegrass is a problematic weed in bermudagrass and other intensively maintained turfgrasses. Flumioxazin is reported to control annual bluegrass both PRE and POST; however, as a contact herbicide, flumioxazin injures actively growing bermudagrass. Research was conducted in Alabama and California to evaluate optimal flumioxazin application timing for annual bluegrass control, bermudagrass response, and overall sward quality in the field, and to assess annual bluegrass control at various growth stages in the greenhouse. November and December application timings resulted in the best balance of the three parameters. When bermudagrass was not dormant at application, treatment resulted in necrosis of green tissues and thus induced dormancy. The herbicide-induced dormancy resulted in better sward quality due to more uniform and therefore more aesthetically pleasing dormant turfgrass relative to natural dormancy. Flumioxazin at 0.43 kg ai ha−1 resulted in better annual bluegrass control and improved sward quality relative to 0.21 kg ha−1. Incomplete POST annual bluegrass control from later applications was attributed to larger weed size, limiting the effectiveness of this contact herbicide. Greenhouse data corroborated field results and indicated that flumioxazin at 0.43 kg ha−1 controlled ≥ 95% of annual bluegrass up to two tillers. Flumioxazin can be utilized for PRE and POST annual bluegrass control, but utilization of this herbicide is limited to dormant bermudagrass unless induced dormancy can be tolerated, and POST control is limited to annual bluegrass plants ≤ two tillers in size.

Poa annua es una maleza problemática en el césped bermuda y otros céspedes manejados en forma intensiva. Flumioxazin ha sido reportado para el control PRE y POST de P. annua. Sin embargo, como herbicida de contacto, flumioxazin daña al césped bermuda que está creciendo activamente. La presente investigación fue realizada en Alabama y California para evaluar el momento óptimo de aplicación de flumioxazin para el control de P. annua, la respuesta del césped bermuda, y la calidad general del área cubierta con el césped, y para evaluar el control de P. annua en varios estados de desarrollo en el invernadero. Aplicaciones realizadas en Noviembre y Diciembre resultaron en el mejor balance entre esos tres parámetros. Cuando el césped bermuda no estuvo latente al momento de aplicación, los tratamientos resultaron en necrosis del tejido verde y consecuentemente latencia inducida. La latencia inducida por el herbicida resultó en una mejor calidad del área con césped debido a que se obtuvo un césped latente más uniforme y estéticamente más placentero en comparación con la latencia natural. Flumioxazin a 0.43 kg ai ha−1 resultó en un control de P. annua mayor y mejoró la calidad del césped al compararse con 0.21 kg ha−1. El control parcial de P. annua obtenido con las aplicaciones POST posteriores fue atribuido al mayor tamaño de las malezas, lo que limitó la eficacia de este herbicida de contacto. Los datos de invernadero corroboraron los resultados de campo e indicaron que flumioxazin a 0.43 kg ha−1 controló ≥95% de P. annua de hasta dos hijuelos. Flumioxazin puede usarse para el control PRE y POST de P. annua, pero la utilización de este herbicida se limita al césped bermuda latente, a menos que se pueda tolerar la latencia inducida, y el control POST se limita a plantas de P. annua en estado de crecimiento ≤dos hijuelos.

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Corresponding author

Corresponding author's E-mail: mlf0010@auburn.edu

References

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